Thursday, 19 July 2012

Some Software Testing Interview Questions

 Some Software Testing Interview Questions

These questions and answers are totally based on the interview I attended during my 6years of working experience as a QA Tester. In some sections, I have started includingthe interview questions that were asked by companies to some of the candidateswho visited this website and wanted to share. I have mentioned their names who thequestions were asked to. These questions and scenarios are based on practical experience.These were asked during my several interviews. Therefore, a person who is looking for aQA job (Quality Assurance job) can greatly benefit from this. If you are the first time jobseeker as a QA person, then it can help you even better. As a consultant (or contractor), Imoved to different companies in various locations in the United States. Consulting job or contracting job is such a job where an individual takes (or has to take) a job anywhere inthe United States and normally, it is for a short period of time, for example, 3 months toseveral years. Some companies allow a contractor to work only for 15 months (It is their  policy) and the consultant has to leave the company no matter what. Some companiesallow the contractors as long as they want. Therefore, it really depends on the company policy how long you will be working.Finally, if you are attending an interview, you have to know these questions and answers by heart must be very fluent in answering these questions. Practice in front of the mirror,loud and clear (talk to yourself). Most of the time, when we read the questions, we feelgood and feel comfortable, but the reality is, at the time of the interview, even though wefeel we have the knowledge, can’t express it well. It may sound a little rough, but this ismy experience. When we come out the door, we regret. If you cannot remember these byheart, trust me, it may not work. Therefore, let’s not regret.HERE ARE THE QUESTIONS:
 1. Can you tell me about yourself?
 Answer: In my QA career, I have been working on various system platforms andoperating systems like Windows 95, Windows 2000, Windows XP and UNIX. I havetested applications developed in Java, C++, Visual Basic and so on. I have tested Web- based applications as well as client server applications.As a QA person, I have written Test Plans, Test Cases, attended walkthrough meetingswith the Business Analysts, Project Managers, Business Managers and QA Leads. I haveattended requirement review meetings and provided feedback to the Business Analysts. Ihave worked in different databases like Oracle and DB2, wrote SQL queries to retrievedata from the database. As far as different types of testing are concerned, I have performed Smoke Testing, Functional Testing, Backend Testing, Black Box Testing,Integration Testing, Regression Testing and UAT (User Acceptance Testing) Testing. Ihave participated in Load Testing and Stress Testing.I have written defects as they are found using ClearQuest and TestDirector. Once thedefects were fixed, retested them and if the passed, closed them. If the defects were notfixed, then reopened them. I have also attended the defect assessment meetings asnecessary.In the meantime, a continuous interaction with developers was necessary.This is pretty much what I have been doing as a QA person.
 2. What did you do in your last project?
Answer: In my last project, the application was a web-based application developed inJava platform. As a QA Person, I wrote Test Plans from the requirement documents and  Use Cases. I performed Smoke Testing, Functional Testing, Backend Testing, Black BoxTesting, Integration Testing, Regression Testing and UAT (User Acceptance Testing). Ihave participated in Load Testing and Stress Testing. I attended several walkthroughmeetings for requirement reviews and provided feedback to the Business Analysts.Mostly, I was in the backend testing, which required writing SQL queries directly to thedatabase.Besides these, I wrote defects using ClearQuest. Once the defects were fixed, retestedthem and if the passed, closed them. If the defects were not fixed, then reopened them.
3. Have you written Test Plan? What is a Test Plan? What does it include?
Answer: Yes.
What is a Test Plan?
 Answer: A Test Plan is a document that describes the scope, approach, resources, andschedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, thetesting tasks and who will do each task (roles and responsibilities) and any risks and itssolutions.
What does it include?
Answer: A Test Plan includes Heading, Revision History, Table of Contents,Introduction, Scope, Approach, Overview, different types of testing that will be carriedout, what software and hardware will be required, issues, risks, assumptions and sign off section.
4. Have you written Test Cases?
Answer: Yes.
What is a Test Case? What does it include
?Answer: A Test Case is a document that describes step-by-step process how to test theapplication. A Test Case includes Test Case ID, Steps Description, Expected Output,Actual Output, Pass/Fail, and Remarks. (Remember, this is NOT a part of Test Plan. It isa separate document written using Excel. In some companies, they use RationalTestManager or TestDirector. But for companies, who do not have these tools, use Excelsheet. In t he example below, it is in the Excel sheet)
 did you use any tools to write Test Cases?
Answer: Yes. I have used TestDirector (now called QualityCenter) and RationalTestManager to write Test Cases. However, in most of the companies, I used Excel sheet.
How many Test Cases did you write in your last project?
Answer: I wrote about 1100 Test Cases in my last project. (The reasonable number of Test Cases varies from 500 to thousands. The number 1100 test cases can be completedin 6-month project duration).
What document did you refer to write the Test Cases?
Answer: Requirement document. (NOTE: It can also be Use Cases, or DesignDocument. It depends company to company. In some company, they use Use Cases. Insome companies, they use Requirement Documents and in companies, they use DesignDocument. However, in practical scenario, most of the companies have requirementdocument at least).
5. Did you have a situation where you did not have any documents (no requirementdocument, no Use Cases, or no Design Document) and you had to write the TestCases? How did you write the Test Cases in this situation?
Answer: Yes. I have been to that kind of scenarios several times. There were companieswhere they had no documents at all. In that case, I had to discuss the application scenario  and functionalities with the Business Analysts or developer. On the basis of thatdiscussion, I prepared a document in consultation with Business Analysts and Developersand then started writing Plans and Test Cases.
6. What you worked with Use Cases before?
Answer: Yes. I have written Test Cases using Use Cases.
Can you tell me what a Use Case is?
Answer: A use case is a document that describes the user action and system response for a particular functionality.
7. What is SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle)?
Answer: SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) is the process of developingsoftware through business needs, analysis, design, implementation and maintenance.Software has to go through various phases before it is born which are as follows:(i)
Generating a Concept
– A concept comes from the users of the software. For example, a Pizza Hut may need software to sell pizza. An Indian store may need softwareto sell its newly arrived movies or grocery. The owner of the company feels that he needssoftware that would help him in tracking his expenses and income as well as enhance theselling process. This is how the concept is generated. The owner will specifically tell thesoftware company what kind of software he would need. In other words, he will specifyhis requirements.(ii)
Requirements analysis
– After the owner (user) knows his requirements, then it isgiven to a software team (company) who will analyze the requirement and preparerequirement document that will explain every functionality that are needed by the owner.The requirement document will be the main document for developers, testers anddatabase administrators. In other words, this is the main document that will be referred byeveryone. After the requirement documents, other detailed documents many be needed.For example, the architectural design which is a blueprint for the design with thenecessary specifications for the hardware, software, people and data resources.(iii)
After the detailed requirement documents (some companies havedesign documents instead of requirement documents), the developers start writing their code (program) for their modules. On the other hand, the testers in the QA (QualityAssurance) Department start writing Test Plans (one module=1 test plan), test cases andget ready for testing.(iv)
: Once the codes (programs) are ready, they are compiled together and tomake a build. This build is now tested by the software testers (QA Testers)(v) Production: After testing, the application (software) goes into production (meaning, itwill be handed over to the owner).(vi)
And one day, the owner will have say bye to the software either because the business grows and this software does not meet the demand or for some reason, the hedoes not need the software. That’s the end of it.
8. What is Business Requirement Document (BRD)?
Answer: It is a document that describes the details of the application functionalitieswhich is required by the user. This document is written by the Business Analysts.
9. What is Business Design Document?
Answer: It is the document that describes the application functionalities of the user indetail. This document has the further details of the Business Requirement Document.This is a very crucial step in Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Sometimes the  Business Requirement Document and Business Design Document can be lumped together to make only one Business Requirement Document.
10. What is a Module?
Answer: A ‘Module’ is a software component that has a specific task. It can be a ‘link’,which can go inside to its component detail. (This is NOT a very common question for the interview. This is just for your knowledge, if you don’t know what a module is.)
11. What is walk-through meeting?
Answer: Once the Business Analysts complete the requirement document, they call ameeting to explain how the functionalities work, what the process is in the designedapplication and other details. The Business Analysts explain the high level functionalitiesof the application (software) that is going to the built. The participant members in themeeting may provide feed back and various points of views are expressed. This is walk-through meeting.
12. What is a Use Case and what does it include?
Answer: A Use Case is a document that describes the user action and system responsefor a particular functionality. It includes cover page, Revision History, Table of Contents,Flow of Events (normal flow and alternative flow), Exceptions, Special Requirements,Pre-conditions and Post-conditions.
13. What is Build?
Answer: When each of the different modules of software is prepared, the ConfigurationManagement Team (CMT) puts them in a single folder and it is called the ‘Build’. . (Thisis NOT a very common question for the interview. This is just for your knowledge, if youdon’t know what a build is.)
14. What does the Build Deployment mean?
Answer: When the Build so prepared by the CMT (Configuration Management Team), itis deployed (put) to different Test Environments; it is called the Build Deployment.
15. What is Test Strategy?
Answer: A Test Strategy is a document that describes the test efforts, test configuration,testing tools to be employed, test environments, exit criteria and entry criteria for testing,what different types of testing will be carried out (for example, smoke test, regression,load test, functional test and so on) types of testing to be carried out and systemrequirement. The Test Manager or Lead writes it. (Remember, the Tester does NOT writeTest Strategy. A Tester writes Test Plans and Test Cases)
16. Are Test Plan and Test Strategy same type of documents?
Answer: No, they are different documents. A Test Plan is a document that collects andorganizes test cases by functional areas and/or types of testing in a form that can be presented to the other teams and/or customer (see the definition on this page for TestPlan) where as the Test Strategy (see the definition in the above question) is thedocumented approach to testing. The tester prepares test Plan whereas the Manager or lead prepares the Test Strategy. Both are important pieces of Quality Assurance processessince they help communicate the test approach scope and ensure test coverage whileimproving the efficiency of the testing effort.
17. What does Test Strategy include?
Answer: It includes introduction, Test Objectives, Test Process, Test Methodology, TestScope, Release Criteria for Testing (exit criteria), Test Lab configuration, resource andschedule for test activities, acceptance criteria, test environment, test tools, test priorities,test planning, executing a test pass and types of test to be performed.
 18. What are different types of software testing and define them? Answer: Differenttypes of testing are:
1) Unit testing2) Shakeout testing3) Smoke testing (Ad-hoc testing)4) Functional testing5) Integration testing6) Regression testing7) System testing8) Load testing9) Stress testing10) Performance testing11) User acceptance testing12) Black box testing13) White box testing14) Alpha testing15) Beta testing(Note: Except the Shakeout testing and Unit testing (which are respectively done by theCMT (Configuration Management Team) and Coder/Developer), all other testing aredone by the QA tester.)
What is Unit testing?
It is a test to check the code whether it is properly working or notas per the requirement.
What is Shakeout testing?
This test is basically carried out to check the networking facility, database connectivityand the integration of modules. The Configuration Management team, who prepare buildsfor test environments, normally does this test. They also test whether the major components of the software are not broken. This test is done BEFORE the build isdeployed in the test environment. After the shake out testing, the next step is smoketesting (which is done by the testers after the build is deployed in the test environment)
What is smoke testing?
This test is done when the build is just prepared (fresh build)and deployed in the test environments. This is basically an ad hoc test to check roughly tomake sure the major functionalities are not broken. It is the preliminary a test carried out by the QA tester. After the smoke test, the testers perform functional testing.
What is Functional testing?
It is a test to check whether each and every function of thatapplication is working as per the requirement (remember this work “as per requirementdocument”-you must say this in the interview). It is a major test where 80% of the testsare done. In this test, the Test Cases are executed (or run).
What is Integration testing?
It is a test to check whether all the modules are combinedtogether or not and working successfully as specified in the requirement document. (Justfor your information: Each developer works on different modules. When they finish their code, the configuration management team puts them together and prepares a build. We,as testers, need to make sure that these modules, which are now combined, work as per requirement document)
 What is Regression testing?
When a new functionality is added to the software, we needto make sure that the added new functionality does not break the other parts of theapplication. Or when defects (bugs) are fixed, we need to make sure that the bug fix hasnot broken the other parts of the application. To test this, we perform a repetitive test,which is called regression test.
What is System testing?
When testers complete testing (The testers test the applicationin the test environments, meaning they test with the test data only, NOT with the realdata), the application (software) has to be tested in the real environment. What it meansis, since the testers test it in the test environment with the test data, we have to make surethat the application works well in the real environment with the real data. In testenvironment, some of the things cannot be simulated or tested. Al though the testenvironment is very similar to the production (real) environment, we need to make surethat we get a smooth delivery in the real system as well (As servers are different anddatabase is different, things may not work as expected when the application is movedfrom test environment to production environment)
What is Load testing?
It is a test to check the user’s response time for number of usersusing any one scenario (single business process) of the same application at the same time.
What is Performance testing?
It is a test to check the user’s response time for number of users using multiple scenarios (multiple business process) of the same application atthe same time.(Did you notice the difference between Load Testing and Performance testing? What isit? See the highlighted bold letters)
What is Stress testing?
In this type of testing the application is tested against heavy loadsuch as complex numerical values, large number of inputs, large number of queries etc.which checks for the stress/load the applications can withstand.
What is User acceptance testing (UAT)?
In this type of testing, the software is handedover to the user in order to find out if the software meets the user expectations and worksas it is expected to. In this testing, the tester may do the testing or the clients may havetheir own testers (For example, banks may have their own teller employees who can testthe application).
 What is Black box testing?
It is test where a tester performs testing without looking intothe code. (OR it is a testing method where the application under test is viewed as a black  box and the internal behavior of the program is completely ignored. Testing occurs basedupon the external specifications. Also known as behavioral testing, since only theexternal behavior of the program is evaluated and analyzed.)
What is White box testing?
It is a test where a tester looks into the code and performsthe testing.
What is Alpha testing?
In this type of testing, the users are invited at the developmentcenter where they use the application and the developers note every particular input or action carried out by the user. Any type of abnormal behavior of the system is noted andrectified by the developers.
 What is Beta testing?
In this type of testing, the software is distributed as a beta versionto the users and users test the application at their sites. As the users explore the software,in case if any exception/defect occurs that is reported to the developers.
 19. What is the difference between Load Testing and Performance Testing?
Answer: Basically Load, Stress and Performance Testing are the same. However,
is the test to check the users’ response time of number of users of any
of the application whereas Performance Testing is the test to check the user response time for multiple scenario of the same application.
20. What was the process of QA testing in your company where you worked for thelast time? (Or As far as the QA process is involved, what was the testing process inyour company?)
Answer: The QA testing process that was followed in my last company where I workedwas as follows:First of all the Business Requirement Document was prepared as per the client’srequirement (with the muck-up). Then on the basis of the requirement document, QATeam wrote Test Plans, Test Cases and Test Strategies. The developers started codingtheir modules (started programming). Once the developers finished coding, theConfiguration Management Team compiled the code together and prepared a build. ThisBuild is now deployed to different testing environments where different types of testingwere performed. Once the defects were found, the testers would log the defect using thetools available (like TestDirecotor, ClearQuest and so on. For the companies who cannotafford these expensive tools, they can use Excel sheet as well). Once the defects arelogged, then those defects would be discussed in the defect status meeting and would takefurther actions (meaning, closing, reopening, retesting of defects etc).
21. What is Change Control?
Answer: It is a document that describes the additional functionalities that are added after the Business Requirement Document is signed off. It can be updated in the old businessrequirement document or it can be a separate document. (For example, in the BusinessRequirement Document, on the login page, there are User Name and Password fields.The owner of the software wants to add, “If you do not have User Name and Password, please click here.” This is a change. But this change came after the document is signedoff by the Project Managers. Now this is a change control and comes as a separatedocument. (It is also called Change Request, Modification Request).
22. Have you written Change Control?
Answer: Yes. There was a situation where in one page of an application in my previous project, when the user clicked “Contact” link, it would pop up a different window (newseparate window). But it was NOT the way it was described in the requirementdocument. In the requirement document, when the user clicks “Contact” link, then itshould navigate to another page (Not a separate new window. Then was it a problem?Functionality wise, it was NOT a problem, however, on all the other pages, when the user clicked “Contact” link, the system would navigate to next page (not a separate window).So, it was NOT CONSISTENT with the other functionalities on the other pages.Therefore, it was a consistency issue. I reported this as a bug. But the Project Manager asked me to write it as a Change Control (because it requires more budget to fix thisissue) so that he can address this issue at a later time. So I wrote this as a Change Control.(However, it is NOT a job of a tester to write change control. It’s the business analyst’s job)
23. What is Backend Testing?
Answer: It is a test to check whether the data displayed in the GUI front-end matcheswith the particular data in the backend.
24. Have you done any Backend Testing and/or if you did, how did you do it in yourlast project?
Aswer: Yes. I have done backend testing. When I was working in my last project, thiswas my scenario of backend testing:I was working on Reports. It was the scenario of testing one application used in the bank, where a customer comes to a bank’s front desk,the bank teller is requested to open a Checking Account. The associate then asks for the personal information about the customer, which, are the primary data, such as: First Name, Last Name, Date of Birth, Address and Social Security Number. The associatethen puts these primary data of that particular customer into the computer, which thenafterwards batch-processed (normally happens in the middle of the nigh). Now, after the batch process, the information of that customer goes into the central database in the XMLformat. The data now from the database goes to ETL (Extract-Transform-Load). (ETL isa tool made by two companies ‘AbInitio’ and ‘Informatica’) ETL now processes the jobto create a file (output file) to produce the report. The file is now displayed in the GUIFront End report with the help of Business Object (or Crystal Reports. These are toolsthat display data in GUI format). In the GUI Front End report, let us say, if for January,the deposit of that person was displayed as $ 900.00. Then my job was to validatewhether this $900 is correct or not. I validated this data by writing SQL queries directlyto the database. The data pulled from my SQL query should match to the data in the GUIfront end. In other words, my SQL query should also display $900. If it matches, it iswell and good. If it doesn’t, then it’s a bug. This is how I have done my Back EndTesting.
How can you be sure that the query you wrote is correct? Or how do you know thatthe data you pulled from the database is correct?
Answer: I write SQL query based on the requirement document. In the requirementdocument, various conditions are given for the query. Based on those conditions, I writeSQL query. Therefore, anything different from the requirement document is definitely adefect.
25. From you resume, I see that you have been working in one place for a very shortperiod of time. This raises me questions why. Can you explain why?
Answer: As a consultant, I am hired for a certain period of time (for project durationonly), normally for 6 months to 1 year. Once the project is over, I needed to move toanother project. That’s why you see me in the resume jumping frequently here and there.
26. What is done on the first day of the work?
Answer: On the first day, the Manager will come to receive at the lobby. He/she willwelcome you; tell where you will be sitting. The next thing will be will show you loginname and password and they want to make sure that the login name and password worksso that you can use your computer. Then the Manager will tell you where the documentsare located in the network drive (or shared drive, or ClearCase, or Sharepoint—differentcompanies use different software for this purpose). Once you find the documents, thenyou will ask them what you will be working on what are the related documents that youshould read. You start reading the documents, which lasts normally one week or more.
27. What do you do on the job every day? What is the first thing you go when you  go to work on a day? (What is your routine job?)
Answer: Go to work, have a cup of coffee (coffee is free in any work place), then check emails. I will check in my calendar whether there is any meeting for the day. If there isanything urgent work that needs to take care of, then I will start with that job. Otherwise,I will start what is left from yesterday on a priority basis.(This question was asked to one of my friends while he was attending interview in one of the companies. When they asked him this question, his answer was, he said, “I starttesting”. This was his wrong answer. The answer varies in which phase of testing theapplication is. If the application is in very beginning state-meaning that the coding has just begun, then the tester’s job will be to analyze and read the requirement documents,write test plans and write test cases. Probably attend walkthrough meeting and so on.However, the daily routine job would be, as mentioned above, check emails, readdocuments, attend meeting and so on. It’s not that as soon as you enter the office, youstart testing)
What do you do if you have any questions to ask? Who do you ask?
At the beginning, we all panic, what kind of questions to ask? What if they ask questions that Idon’t know? Is it OK to ask questions? What do I do if I don’t know how to do the job Iam assigned to? and so on.As mentioned earlier, on the first day, your Manager will give you the system (computer)(They normally call system, not computer), will tell you what the User ID and Passwordis, where are the QA documents on the shared drive (or Network drive) are and so on.They will definitely ask you to read a lot of documents at the beginning (And you mustread read and read those documents AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. At the beginning,allocate about 2 hours extra at home for reading these documents. This habit will put youon the top of your job). These documents are normally design specification document(DSD). Different companies call it with different names, for example, RequirementSpecification Document (RSD) and so on. After reading the documents, you will beasked to write Test Plans or Test Cases (Don’t panic. The Test Plans and Test Casestemplates will be give by your manager or test lead and they will tell you what to do andhow to do because different companies have different formats they follow. If they don’thave one, then you can always prepare a sample from this website (see on the rightcolumn) and give it to them. You will be hero)
Who do you ask?
  Now let’s say you did not understand something while reading documents. Who are yougoing to ask? Answer-Business Analysts who wrote this document. If you have any other questions that you don’t know, you will be asking that to you friend first, if he/she is notable to answer, then ask this question to the Lead (or Manager). Do not ask too manyquestions (some people get irritated). Therefore, it is important to read read and read.That’s the only way to succeed.If you have any questions in TestDirector, or QTP or any other automation tools, thenthere is a HELP menu as well as tutorial. Please go through these, read them before youask any questions to anyone else.What kind of questions should I ask in the meeting? Nothing. My advice is, keep your mouth shut. Just listen. This is the best way to handlethe job until you are confident enough to speak and you know what you are talking about.If they ask you some questions, then reply gently, wisely.
How to deal with your team members?
 Most probably, you will not be the only tester in the team. There will be more than you.Sometimes, dealing with you team members is frustrating, specially when you are new.They try to ignore you. They want to show themselves smart. Don’t worry. Don’t blamethem. This part of the human nature. Try to cope with it. Invite them when you go for coffee (in the coffee room in your office, don’t go outside), try to share your feelings andso on. It is all how you handle your friends. It is part of your daily activities, handle itgently. This is part of the situation I have gone through, my friends have gone through. Iam just sharing this with you.
28. Have you used automation tools?
(Normally, when some one asks this question, we tend to think about automationfunctional testing tools, like WinRunner, LoadRunner, QTP (Quick Test Pro), RationalRobot, Experian and so on. But the reality is, even a Manual Tester also uses automationtools like bug tracking tools like TestDirector, ClearQuest, PVC Tracker and so on.Therefore, your answer should be Yes)Answer: Yes. I have used TestDirector and ClearQuest as defect tracking tools. (Your answer is based on whether you have used automation tools specially for functional andload testing. If you have NOT used, but read about these tools, then you may be better off saying, “I know about the tools. I was involved in some of the testing using these tools, but would need some brush up in order to work independently.” I am saying this becausethese tools are difficult to tackle in the interview and have to know in depth. In order to pass the interview on functional automation tools, it may not be easy unless you reallyknow the stuff. But, since there is not much to learn in ClearQuest and TestDirector, youonly have to know what different types of fields are there in the defect logging window
29. When you log a defect using TestDirector (or ClearQuest) what fields do yousee?
 Answer: When we log a defect, we see Defect ID (it shows later in TestDirector),Summary (where we write short description of the defect), Description (long descriptionof the defect), Detected by (Person who found the defect, (it’s you), Severity (meaning-isthe defect critical? High? Medium? Or Low?), Date, Detected in Version, Priority,Project, Status, Assigned to and so on.
30. Are you better working in a team or working alone?
Answer: I am a team player. I get along with team members very well. As far as theworking is concerned, I can be equally productive in team or working alone.(Caution: Never say, I like working alone. This could lead you to not getting a job as theyare always looking for people who can get along with other people.)
31. Do you have any situations in the past where you have some arguments withyour team members?
Answer: No. I never had that type of situation wherever I have worked.(Even if you had one, it’s a good idea to say “No”. This could be a red flag, which mightstop you from getting the job)
32. What do you like about a Manager? And what don’t you like?
Answer: The best thing I like about a Manager is that the Manager should be able tocoordinate with the other teams so that we can get the updated documents, for example,updated requirements documents right away. A Manager who can efficiently indistributes the work to the team, without being biased and easily accessible and protective  to his team for the right cause. As far as “what I don’t like” is concerned, I don’t like amanager who keeps coming to desk 10 times a day to check my work even if it is just aregular work. Once the responsibility is given, the team member should be trusted and lethis work done.
33. Where do you see yourself in another 5 years?
Answer: I see myself a QA Lead in another 5 years.(You can also say “QA Manager”, but since the QA Manager is taking your interviewmost of the time, they some times feel challenged. Therefore, it might be a good idea tolimit you to QA Lead)
34. Why are you in QA?
I am in QA because I like this job.35. Why do you like this job?
Answer: I like this job, because it is process oriented. Meaning that I get an opportunityto work from analyzing the requirement documents to writing test plans, test cases,testing the application, logging defects, retesting, preparing reports and finally testing in production as well. Therefore, I am involved from the very beginning to the end of thesoftware development life cycle (SDLC) process. I like this.Another reason is I like to find defects. I enjoy logging defects. The more defects I find,the happier I am.
36. How do you determine what to test in an application?
Answer: First of all we have the test cases (or test scripts) that are written based on therequirement document. This pretty much covers what functionalities to test. Therefore,looking at the test cases tells us what to test in the application.
37. If you have no documentation about the product, how do you test anapplication? Describe the process.
Answer: Well, this is a situation where I have come across several times. Some of thecompanies in my previous projects did not have any documents. In this case, I went to theBusiness Analyst and some times to developers to find out how exactly the functionalitieswork, how to navigate from one page to another page and so on. After getting a clear vision, I write test cases based on the conversation (which is a step by step procedure totest an application) and get ready for testing.
What do you do once you find a defect?
Once you find a defect, this is what we need to do:1.
Recreate the Defect
: Once you find a defect, we must try to recreate (meaning that weshould be able to reproduce it) at least 3 times so that we are sure that it is a defect. Sometimes, once we find it log it without recreating, may put us in a false situation (becausesometimes the application does not behave in the same way). Therefore, it is important torecreate the same defect several times.2.
Attach the Screen Shot
(supporting document): Once we confirm that it is a defect,and then it is a good idea to attach supporting documents when we log (write) a defect.For example, screen shot, requirement document etc. For instance, let us say that insteadof “Continue” button on a page, there is a typo “Contiinuee”. Now, we will make ascreen shot of this page (To make screen shot, press “Print Screen” button on thekeyboard, and open a Word document, and Click Edit on the Word document and “Past”it. You will see the screen now) Now, a tester needs to write defects in easy and clear language to make all the developers to understand easily.
Log the Defect:
Now, the next step is, we need to log it. Depending on the companywhat kind of tools they are using (for example, some companies use TestDirector to logdefects, some companies use Rational ClearQuest, some use PVC Tracker and so on). If the company is small and cannot afford these expensive tools, then they may simply useExcel sheet to log defects. We log the defect.
38. What are the basic elements you put in a defect?
 Answer: Basic elements we put in a defect are: SEVERITY, PRIORITY, CREATED BY,VERSION NO, HEADER, DESCRIPTION OF THE DEFECT where we write how torecreate a defect, in what module the defect is found, Status, and so on.
39. What is the biggest bug you have ever found?
Answer: Well, there are many big defects I have found in various projects. For example,in the last project, on a page, there was a button called “More Information”. Once theuser clicked that button, the system would open a new window (pop up).We could close the new window in 3 ways:-By clicking X at the top right corner of the page-By clicking “Close” button on the page-By pressing combination keys (Alt+F4) on the key boardAlthough the combination key (Alt+F4) was not mentioned in the test case, I just wantedto try how the application reacts when Alt+F4 is pressed. Then I pressed Alt+F4. Theresult was a disaster-the application crashed (broke). The application disappeared fromthe computer monitor. Since it was the last day of testing for us, it brought chaos in our Managers, Leads and the whole teams. Finally, the developers disabled Alt+F4 as atemporary solution and the application went into production.
 40. How do you make sure that it is quality software?
Answer: There is a certain process how the quality of software is guaranteed (ensured).If is defined by the ‘exit criteria’. (What it means is, a QA Manager writes a documentcalled Test Strategy. This Test Strategy defines the ‘exit criteria’.) Exit Criteria gives themeasurement, for example, in order to confirm the quality, how many critical defects,high defects, medium defect and low defect are acceptable? These are all defined in theexit criteria. (Normally in practice, for a quality software, there should no critical defects(0 critical), no high defect (0 high), no medium defect (0 medium) and may be 1 lowdefect)
41. As a QA Tester, can you tell me the situation when you felt the most proud of it?
Answer: When I find the defect that normally others don’t find, then I feel very proud.For example, there were situations where I found bugs that crashed the whole system atthe end of testing phase. I tried the scenarios where the scenarios were NOT mentioned inthe test cases. For example, we can close the windows by clicking X on the page, with“Close” button and so on. But there is another way that you can close the window, by pressing Alt+F4 on the keyboard. Not many testers test this scenario. I have done this inmy last two projects. Both the time, the application crashed which became a big issue. Ifelt proud.
42. What made you to choose testing career?
Answer: I am a very detailed oriented person and I like process-oriented job. The wayQA process works is just the kind of work I like. For example, analyzing requirementdocuments, attending walk-through meetings, writing test plans, writing test cases, executing the test cases (or running the test cases) testing the application, logging defects,retesting them and so on. I think I really like the process and that’s why I chose thiscareer.
43. When should testing start in a project? Why?
Answer: We should start testing as soon as the following things are ready:-Test Data are ready-Build (all the developers have coded their code and merged themtogether)-Test Environment (servers, network etc) is set up and ready-When the manager asks us to go ahead and start testing.
44. Let us say you have a web application to test. How do you go about testing it?What is the process?
Answer: First of all, I will look at the requirement documents (or design document insome companies). The requirement document will tell us what the functionalities in theapplication (software) are. Once I analyze the requirement documents (one module=onerequirement document). After that, I will write test plans for each module (one module=one test plan). Then after the test plan is complete, I will write test cases (One modulecan have hundreds, even thousands test cases). Once the test cases are ready and theapplication is ready (or once the build is ready), then I will start testing. Before I starttesting, however, I will make sure the test environments, test data and defect loggingtools are in place. This is how I will go about testing an application.
45. What is a “bug?”
Answer: A bug is a bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer code(program) that prevents it from behaving as intended (e.g., producing an incorrect result).(You can also add this: When the expected results (accordingly to the requirementdocuments) don’t match with the actual results (while testing), then it is considered a bug)
46. How would you ensure that you have covered 100% testing?
Answer: The testing coverage is defined by exit criteria (There is exit criteria and entrycriteria in the Test Strategy). For example, if the exit criteria says “The software will beacceptable to the client only if there are no critical defects, no high defects, no mediumdefects and only two low defects”, then all the critical, high, medium should be zero.Only 2 low defects are acceptable. Thus, 100% coverage is measured by the exit criteria.Also, 100% test cases must be executed in order to cover 100% of testing.
47. What problems did you face in the past? How did you solve it?
(You will be OK if you just give one of the problems below, not all of them)Aswer: I had many problems while testing applications in the past.As far as I remember one of them (then describe one of them from below), this was the scenario: (i) It was aweb-based application. I was working on a module called “Transaction Summary”. Therewas “Submit” button on that page. After entering data in the all the fields, for example,First Name, Last Name, Social Security Number, Date of Birth and so on, I clicked theSubmit button. Once I clicked Submit button, an error page displayed, “Page cannot befound…”. Since it was a critical defect, I immediately informed the Test Lead. There wasa chaos in the room. All the developers, Database Administrators and Testers gathered inmy cube (room). No body could tell exactly what was wrong with it. Finally, one smartguy checked into the database and found out that one of the files in the database wasclosed. The status of all the files should be in the open status. Once the status of the  closed file was put in the “open” status, the application worked fine. (ii) One of the problems was in the Login window (page). When the user enters and Login Name andPassword, then Password should be encrypted. One of the Test Cases was that I needed toopen database and see whether the password is encrypted or not. I found out it was notencrypted. I reported it as a bug (defect) and it was fixed in the next release (build). (iii)Defects I have found in a project was a defect to close a window (pop up). For example,in the last project, on a page, there was a button called “More Information”. Once theuser clicked that button, the system would open a new window (pop up).We could closethe new window in 3 ways:-By clicking X at the top right corner of the page-By clicking “Close” button on the page-By pressing combination keys (Alt+F4) on the key boardAlthough the combination key (Alt+F4) was not mentioned in the test case, I just wantedto try how the application reacts when Alt+F4 is pressed. Then I pressed Alt+F4. Theresult was a disaster-the application crashed (broke). The application disappeared fromthe computer monitor. Since it was the last day of testing for us, it brought chaos in our Managers, Leads and the whole teams. Finally, the developers disabled Alt+F4 as atemporary solution and the application went into production. (iv) Another problem wasthat a user would search for branch location information of a bank. The user logs in byusing User Name and Password. After the log in, on the “Search Location” page, the user enters and zip code of the location he wants to find, then clicks Find button. After that thesystem (application) gives a number of branch locations. The user now clicks “RequestInformation” for one of the branches. As soon as the user clicks “Request Information” button, the application breaks (displays “Page cannot be found” error). I logged thisdefect as a critical defect. When the developers and database administrator looked into it,then they found out that in one of the tables, the data was not recorded. In all the tables(UserProfile table, ClientID table and SessionID table), the data should be populated withthe information entered by the user. For some reason, in one of the tables, it was blank (null). Once they wrote a small code to populate data (enter data) to the table, theapplication started working.(v) In my previous project, when the customer wants to upload a document, for example,a copy of a monthly statement (in Word format), on the website, the system shouldautomatically change the Word document into .pdf format. Once the document wasuploaded, I saw that the fields in the .pdf document were interchanged (misplaced). For example, the First Name displayed in the Last Name section. Date of Birth displayed inthe Social Security Number field and so on. We found out that the problem was amapping problem (remember this word). Once the mapping was correct, I tested in thenew build. It was fixed. (vi) The most common problem that I have faced in my previous projects are the Java script errors, data connectivity, error, HTTP 500 error (This error occurs when server is down), HTTP 400 error (when file is not found) and so on. (vii)“Father” pop up displayed when Print/Print Preview button clicked. (This was coded bythe developer to mark this coding portion (for his/her own purpose as a mark to indicatewhere he/she made changes, however, forgot to remove it). Once the developer fixed it,it still displayed the same thing (because it was in the servers memory and could not go). Now, I had to reset memory of the server from my machine. Therefore, what I did is, Iwent to the website I was testing (for example, andadded reset.aspx at the end of the URL (Now the URL becomes and hit enter. It took me to the server memory and I selected section and submitted the query and it was cleared. Retestedagain and it is now OK. (viii) I was testing a web application. On one page, I clickedSave & Continue button twice (my mistake). Once this button is clicked twice, thesystem displayed an error message, “Could not save the answers, please contact technicalsupport”. (When clicked only once, the button works fine.). Solution: Once the user clicks the button once, the button was disabled later so that the user cannot click twice.(ix) I was testing a web-based application. Once all the fields are entered on the one of the pages, we had Print Preview button. If the user clicks this button, we were supposedsee the same information in a new window in PDF format. While looking at the data inPDF file, there were some fields missing, for example, Date of Birth was missing in thePDF file.
 48. Tell me about the worst boss you’ve ever had.
(Here, you should be careful not tosay any negative words about the past boss. This will give a reflection that you cannotwork with different nature of people. You should be able to show them that you can copewith any king of boss. Therefore, just take an idea below how the answer should be.)Answer: I can hardly think of any Manager that was really bad. But when I compare,then I remember of a Test Lead who was just made a lead from the developers team. Sheused to feel that she has been very proud of her position and used to boss around. Sometimes, she used to call home and check where I was and what I was doing. Or have Icompleted my job before leaving and so on. I think, whatever she did, was in the benefitof the company and myself in the long run which would give me more confidence infuture.
49. What do you like about QA?
Answer: The best thing I like about QA is, I like the job which is more process oriented.For example, we have to work right from reading the requirement documents, providingfeedback to the Business Analysts as necessary, writing test plans, test cases, execute thetest cases, interaction with different developers, attend walk-through meeting and so on. Iam a very detailed oriented person. When I test applications, I try to get into the depth of functionality so that I don’t miss out anything. Finally, I love logging defects.
50. What are all the basic elements in a defect report?
Answer: The basic elements in a defect report are: Defect ID, Header, Description,Defect Reported by, Date, Status, Version, Assigned to, Approved by, Module where thedefect was found and so on.
51. What is the difference between verification and validation?
Verification: Verification is a process to ensure that the software that is made, matchesthe original design. In other words, it checks whether the software is made according tothe criteria and specification described in the requirement document. It is to check whether you built the product right as per design. It is a low level checking. (It is done inwalk-through meetings generally). It checked whether it is made accordingly to thedesign..Validation: Validation is a process to check whether the product design fits theclient’s need. It checks whether you built the right thing. It checks whether it is designed properly.
52. How do you know it is sufficient testing?
Answer: Every company has entry and exit criteria. When we test applications, we refer to exit criteria. When we are about to finish testing, then the QA Team (QA Manager)  refers to the exit criteria (exit criteria tells the level of defect that you can be comfortablewith before it goes to production. For example, there should be ZERO critical defect,ZERO high level defect, ZERO medium defect, 1 Low level defect, all the test cases must be 100% executed etc). Once the exit criteria meet the requirements, then the software isconsidered to be sufficiently tested.Every company has entry and exit criteria. When we test applications, we refer to exitcriteria. When we are about to finish testing, then the QA Team (QA Manager) refers tothe exit criteria (exit criteria tells the level of defect that you can be comfortable with before it goes to production. For example, there should be ZERO critical defect, ZEROhigh level defect, ZERO medium defect, 1 Low level defect, all the test cases must be100% executed etc). Once the exit criteria meet the requirements, then the software isconsidered to be sufficiently tested.
53. How to derive test scenarios and use cases? What are the contents and format?
Answer: Test scenarios are derived from requirement documents. We follow each andevery functionality (called business rules) mentioned in the requirement document. Onefunctionality can have multiple business rules. For example, let us say in there is onerequirement called “Login”. This “Login” may have various scenarios. For example, onescenario is, enter the right User ID and wrong password. The system should display anerror message. Another scenario would be to enter wrong User ID and right Password.The system should display an error message. The third scenario could be to enter the rightUser Name and right Password. The system should allow the user to get into the system.This is how the test cases are derived from the requirement documents or from the UseCases.(For contents for formats of test scenario, please refer to question 4 in
54. What are the types of test cases that you write?
Answer: We write test cases for smoke testing, integration testing, functional testing,regression testing, load testing, stress testing, system testing and so on.
55. How to write Integration test cases?
Answer: I have never written separate Test Cases Integration Testing. Since IntegrationTesting is a test to check whether the all the modules are integrated together or not(meaning that when the developers compile all their module and make a build, allmodules should be working when they are combined together and those modules whencombined, should work as expected). If they are not integrated (combined) in a nice way,then the application breaks. Basically, when we do the functional testing, the integrationtesting is automatically done. This is my experience.
56. How to write Regression test cases? What are the criteria?
Answer: Regression test cases are also based on the requirement documents. They arewritten more into detail and with every release (build), the testers need to do regressiontesting. The criteria for regression testing are; there should be no major defects while wedo our smoke test and functional testing.
57. Is there a format for a test case? Do you follow any methodology for numberingtest cases?
Answer: Yes. It depends upon the company how the company has followed thenumbering of test cases. However, normally, it is just a simple numbering in most of thetime (see question 4 of But some companies may also relate thisnumbering to the requirement number. For example, if the requirement for Login is  “REQ-LOG-001”, then we can number the test cases like REQ-LOG-001-001 and so on.
58. What is Test Harness?
Answer: (Definition from “In software testing, a test harness or automated test framework is a collection of software and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions and monitor its behavior andoutputs. It has two main parts: the test execution engine and the test script repository.”
59. How to write User Acceptance Test plan & test cases?
Answer: The way of writing Test Plan and Test Cases is the same in all the test phases.However, specifically for User Acceptance Testing, the testers use data nearly real data(meaning that the data is very much similar to the production data or real data). For theformat, please refer to question 3 and 4 in
60. What are the different matrices that you follow?
Answer: There are various reports we normally prepare in QA:· Test summary Report – It is a report that has list of the total test cases, list of executedtest cases, remaining test case to be executed, executed date, pass/fail· Defect Report – In this report we normally prepare a list of defect in spreadsheet e.g.defect # CQ12345 [ if you log a defect in the application called Rational ClearQuest]· Traceability Matrix [also called RTM (Requirement Traceability Matrix)] Report – thedocument which shows the relationship between the functionalities or the business rulesand the test cases. So, with the help of Traceability Matrix we make sure that we includesall the functionalities in our test cases according to the requirement document.
61. Explain Bug Life Cycle.
Answer: I would describe this as below:A Tester finds a defect and logs it. (But before you log it, you must try to recreate it for 3or 4 times so that you are 100% sure that it is a bug)The defect is now approved or disapproved by the Test Lead.(If it is disapproved, then the test lead will come to you ask for more details and you haveexplain to him why it is a bug)After the Test Lead approves the bug, it is now assigned to a development Team Lead (or Development Manager). He/she now assigns that bug to the concerned developer. Thedeveloper now looks into the bug and fixes it. Once the fix is ready, there will be another  build ready to test. The tester now tests the defect. It the defect is fixed, then the tester closes the defect, if not then the test will reopen it and same cycle starts.
62. What will you do if developer does not accept the bug?
Answer: If the developer does not accept the defect, then he will reject it. Once it isrejected, then it comes back to the tester. Now, the tester will ask for clarification withthe developer why the defect is rejected. Since everything is based on the requirementdocuments, both tester and developer will have to look at the requirement document,validate it and then reopen it if necessary or close.
63. What are the different tests that can be done for Client Server Application andWeb-based Application. Give details.
Answer: For both client server and web based applications, the testing is the same exceptone thing: We test web based applications in different browsers, for example, InternetExplorer (will test in different versions like IE 5.0, IE 6.0, IE 7.0), Firefox, Safari (for Mac) and so on where as for client server, we don’t need to test in the browsers.
64. What is an inspection?
 Answer: An inspection is a formal meeting, more formalized than a walkthrough andtypically consists of 3-10 people including a moderator, reader (the author of whatever is being reviewed) and a recorder (to make notes in the document). The subject of theinspection is typically a document, such as a requirements document or a test plan. The purpose of an inspection is to find problems and see what is missing, not to fix anything.The result of the meeting should be documented in a written report. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading through the document, before the meetingstarts; most problems are found during this preparation. Preparation for inspections isdifficult, but is one of the most cost-effective methods of ensuring quality, since bug prevention is more cost effective than bug detection.
65. Give me five common problems that occur during software development.
Answer: Poorly written requirements, unrealistic schedules, inadequate testing, addingnew features after development is underway and poor communication. Requirements are poorly written when requirements are unclear, incomplete, too general, or not testable;therefore there will be problems. The schedule is unrealistic if too much work iscrammed in too little time.Software testing is inadequate if none knows whether or not the software is any gooduntil customers complain or the system crashes. It’s extremely common that new featuresare added after development is underway.Miscommunication either means the developers don’t know what is needed, or customershave unrealistic expectations and therefore problems are guaranteed
66. What is the role of documentation in QA?
Answer: Documentation plays a critical role in QA. QA practices should be documented,so that they are repeatable. Specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports,configurations, code changes, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals should all be documented. Ideally, there should be a system for easily finding and obtaining of documents and determining what document will have a particular piece of information.Use documentation change management, if possible.
67. What if the software is so buggy it can’t be tested at all?
Answer: In this situation the best bet is to have test engineers go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules and indicates deeper  problems in the software development process, such as insufficient unit testing,insufficient integration testing, poor design, improper build or release procedures,managers should be notified and provided with some documentation as evidence of the problem.
68. How do you know when to stop testing?
Answer: This can be difficult to determine. Many modern software applications are socomplex and run in such an interdependent environment, that complete testing can never  be done. Common factors in deciding when to stop are…Deadlines, e.g. release deadlines, testing deadlines;Test cases completed with certain percentage passed;Test budget has been depleted;Coverage of code, functionality, or requirements reaches a specified point;Bug rate falls below a certain level; or Beta or alpha testing period ends.
 69. What if there isn’t enough time for thorough testing?
 Answer: Since it’s rarely possible to test every possible aspect of an application, every possible combination of events, every dependency, or everything that could go wrong,risk analysis is appropriate to most software development projects. Use risk analysis todetermine where testing should be focused. This requires judgment skills, common senseand experience. The checklist should include answers to the following questions:· Which functionality is most important to the project’s intended purpose?· Which functionality is most visible to the user?· Which functionality has the largest safety impact?· Which functionality has the largest financial impact on users?· Which aspects of the application are most important to the customer?· Which aspects of the application can be tested early in the development cycle?· Which parts of the code are most complex and thus most subject to errors?· Which parts of the application were developed in rush or panic mode?· Which aspects of similar/related previous projects caused problems?· Which aspects of similar/related previous projects had large maintenance expenses?· Which parts of the requirements and design are unclear or poorly thought out?· What do the developers think are the highest-risk aspects of the application?· What kinds of problems would cause the worst publicity?· What kinds of problems would cause the most customer service complaints?· What kinds of tests could easily cover multiple functionalities?· Which tests will have the best high-risk-coverage to time-required ratio?
70. What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?
 Answer: Work with management early on to understand how requirements might change,so that alternate test plans and strategies can be worked out in advance. It is helpful if theapplication’s initial design allows for some adaptability, so that later changes do notrequire redoing the application from scratch. Additionally, try to… · Ensure the code iswell commented and well documented; this makes changes easier for the developers.· Use rapid prototyping whenever possible; this will help customers feel sure of their requirements and minimize changes.· In the project’s initial schedule, allow for some extra time to commensurate with probable changes.· Move new requirements to a ‘Phase 2′ version of an application and use the originalrequirements for the ‘Phase 1′ version.· Negotiate to allow only easily implemented new requirements into the project; movemore difficult, new requirements into future versions of the application.· Ensure customers and management understand scheduling impacts, inherent risks andcosts of significant requirements changes. Then let management or the customersdecide if the changes are warranted; after all, that’s their job.· Balance the effort put into setting up automated testing with the expected effortrequired to redo them to deal with changes.· Design some flexibility into automated test scripts;· Focus initial automated testing on application aspects that are most likely to remainunchanged;· Devote appropriate effort to risk analysis of changes, in order to minimize regression-testing needs; · Design some flexibility into test cases; this is not easily done; the best bet is to minimizethe detail in the test cases, or set up only higher-level generic-type test plans;· Focus less on detailed test plans and test cases and more on ad-hoc testing with anunderstanding of the added risk this entails.
71. What if the application has functionality that wasn’t in the requirements?
Answer: It may take serious effort to determine if an application has significantunexpected or hidden functionality, which it would indicate deeper problems in thesoftware development process. If the functionality isn’t necessary to the purpose of theapplication, it should be removed, as it may have unknown impacts or dependencies thatwere not taken into account by the designer or the customer.If not removed, design information will be needed to determine added testing needs or regression testing needs. Management should be made aware of any significant addedrisks as a result of the unexpected functionality. If the functionality only affects areas,such as minor improvements in the user interface, it may not be a significant risk.
72. How can software QA processes be implemented without stifling productivity?
Answer: Implement QA processes slowly over time. Use consensus to reach agreementon processes and adjust and experiment as an organization grows and matures.Productivity will be improved instead of stifled. Problem prevention will lessen the needfor problem detection. Panics and burnout will decrease and there will be improved focusand less wasted effort. At the same time, attempts should be made to keep processessimple and efficient, minimize paperwork, promote computer-based processes andautomated tracking and reporting, minimize time required in meetings and promotetraining as part of the QA process. However, no one, especially talented technical types,like bureaucracy and in the short run things may slow down a bit. A typical scenariowould be that more days of planning and development will be needed, but less time will be required for late-night bug fixing and calming of irate customers.
73. What is parallel/audit testing?
Answer: Parallel/audit testing is testing where the user reconciles the output of the newsystem to the output of the current system to verify the new system performs theoperations correctly. Let us say, for example, the currently software is in the mainframesystem which calculates the interest rate. The company wants to change this mainframesystem to web-based application. While testing the new web based application, we needto verify that the web-based application calculates the same interest rate. This is paralleltesting.
74. What is system testing?
Answer: System testing is black box testing, performed by the Test Team, and at the startof the system testing the complete system is configured in a controlled environment. The purpose of system testing is to validate an application’s accuracy and completeness in performing the functions as designed. System testing simulates real life scenarios thatoccur in a “simulated real life” test environment and test all functions of the system thatare required in real life. System testing is deemed complete when actual results andexpected results are either in line or differences are explainable or acceptable, based onclient input.Upon completion of integration testing, system testing is started. Before system testing,all unit and integration test results are reviewed by Software QA to ensure all problemshave been resolved. For a higher level of testing it is important to understand unresolved problems that originate at unit and integration test levels. You CAN learn system testing, with little or no outside help. Get CAN get free information. Click on a link!
75. What is end-to-end testing?
Answer: Similar to system testing, the *macro* end of the test scale is testing a completeapplication in a situation that mimics real world use, such as interacting with a database,using network communication, or interacting with other hardware, application, or system.
76. What is security/penetration testing?
Answer: Security/penetration testing is testing how well the system is protected againstunauthorized internal or external access, or willful damage. This type of testing usuallyrequires sophisticated testing techniques.
77. What is recovery/error testing?
Answer: Recovery/error testing is testing how well a system recovers from crashes,hardware failures, or other catastrophic problems.
78. What is compatibility testing?
Answer: Compatibility testing is testing how well software performs in a particular hardware, software, operating system, or network environment.
79. What is comparison testing?
Answer: Comparison testing is testing that compares software weaknesses and strengthsto those of competitors’ products.
80. What is acceptance testing?
Answer: Acceptance testing is black box testing that gives the client/customer/projectmanager the opportunity to verify the system functionality and usability prior to thesystem being released to production. The acceptance test is the responsibility of theclient/customer or project manager, however, it is conducted with the full support of the project team. The test team also works with the client/customer/project manager todevelop the acceptance criteria.
81. What is a Test/QA Team Lead?
Answer: The Test/QA Team Lead coordinates the testing activity, communicates testingstatus to management and manages the test team.
82. What is software testing methodology?
Answer: One software testing methodology is the use a three step process of…1. Creating a test strategy;2. Creating a test plan/design; and3. Executing tests. This methodology can be used and molded to your organization’sneeds. Rob Davis believes that using this methodology is important in the developmentand in ongoing maintenance of his customers’ applications.
83. What is the general testing process?
Answer: The general testing process is the creation of a test strategy (which sometimesincludes the creation of test cases), creation of a test plan/design (which usually includestest cases and test procedures) and the execution of tests.
 84. How do you create a test strategy?
Answer: The test strategy is a formal description of how a software product will betested. A test strategy is developed for all levels of testing, as required. The test teamanalyzes the requirements, writes the test strategy and reviews the plan with the projectteam. The test plan may include test cases, conditions, the test environment, a list of related tasks, pass/fail criteria and risk assessment. Inputs for this process:· A description of the required hardware and software components, including test tools.
 This information comes from the test environment, including test tool data.· A description of roles and responsibilities of the resources required for the test andschedule constraints. This information comes from man-hours and schedules.· Testing methodology. This is based on known standards.· Functional and technical requirements of the application. This information comes fromrequirements, change request, technical and functional design documents.· Requirements that the system can not provide, e.g. system limitations. Outputs for this process:· An approved and signed off test strategy document, test plan, including test cases.· Testing issues requiring resolution. Usually this requires additional negotiation at the project management level.
85. How do you create a test plan/design?
Answer: Test scenarios and/or cases are prepared by reviewing functional requirementsof the release and preparing logical groups of functions that can be further broken intotest procedures. Test procedures define test conditions, data to be used for testing andexpected results, including database updates, file outputs, report results. Generallyspeaking…Test cases and scenarios are designed to represent both typical and unusual situations thatmay occur in the application.Test engineers define unit test requirements and unit test cases. Test engineers alsoexecute unit test cases.It is the test team that, with assistance of developers and clients, develops test cases andscenarios for integration and system testing.Test scenarios are executed through the use of test procedures or scripts.Test procedures or scripts define a series of steps necessary to perform one or more testscenarios.Test procedures or scripts include the specific data that will be used for testing the process or transaction.Test procedures or scripts may cover multiple test scenarios.Test scripts are mapped back to the requirements and traceability matrices are used toensure each test is within scope.Test data is captured and base lined, prior to testing. This data serves as the foundationfor unit and system testing and used to exercise system functionality in a controlledenvironment.Some output data is also base-lined for future comparison. Base-lined data is used tosupport future application maintenance via regression testing.A pretest meeting is held to assess the readiness of the application and the environmentand data to be tested. A test readiness document is created to indicate the status of theentrance criteria of the release.Inputs for this process:Approved Test Strategy Document.Test tools, or automated test tools, if applicable.Previously developed scripts, if applicable.Test documentation problems uncovered as a result of testing.A good understanding of software complexity and module path coverage, derived fromgeneral and detailed design documents, e.g. software design document, source code andsoftware complexity data.
 Outputs for this process:Approved documents of test scenarios, test cases, test conditions and test data.Reports of software design issues, given to software developers for correction.
86. How do you execute tests?
Answer: Execution of tests is completed by following the test documents in a methodicalmanner. As each test procedure is performed, an entry is recorded in a test execution logto note the execution of the procedure and whether or not the test procedure uncoveredany defects. Checkpoint meetings are held throughout the execution phase. Checkpointmeetings are held daily, if required, to address and discuss testing issues, status andactivities.The output from the execution of test procedures is known as test results. Testresults are evaluated by test engineers to determine whether the expected results have been obtained. All discrepancies/anomalies are logged and discussed with the softwareteam lead, hardware test lead, programmers, software engineers and documented for further investigation and resolution. Every company has a different process for loggingand reporting bugs/defects uncovered during testing.A pass/fail criteria is used todetermine the severity of a problem, and results are recorded in a test summary report.The severity of a problem, found during system testing, is defined in accordance to thecustomer’s risk assessment and recorded in their selected tracking tool.Proposed fixes aredelivered to the testing environment, based on the severity of the problem. Fixes areregression tested and flawless fixes are migrated to a new baseline. Following completionof the test, members of the test team prepare a summary report. The summary report isreviewed by the Project Manager, Software QA Manager and/or Test Team Lead.After a particular level of testing has been certified, it is the responsibility of theConfiguration Manager to coordinate the migration of the release software components tothe next test level, as documented in the Configuration Management Plan. The softwareis only migrated to the production environment after the Project Manager’s formalacceptance.
 87. What testing approaches can you tell me about?
Answer: Each of the followings represents a different testing approach:Black box testing,White box testing,Unit testing,Incremental testing,Integration testing,Functionaltesting,System testing,End-to-end testing,Sanity esting,Regression testing,Acceptancetesting,Load testing,Performance testing,Usability testing,Install/uninstalltesting,Recovery testing,Security testing,Compatibility testing,Exploratory testing, ad-hoc testing,User acceptance testing,Comparison testing,Alpha testing,Beta testing, andMutation testing.
88. How do you divide the application into different sections to create scripts?Answer:
First of all, the application is divided in different parts when a business analystwrites the requirement document (or Use Cases or Design Document), he/she writesEACH requirement document for EACH module. Let us say, if there are 12 differentmodules in an application that a business analyst has written the requirements for, then atester would write the test cases for each module, which means in 12 different sections.This is the standard practice. There might be scenarios where you might have to break down scripts into sub-categories. For example, if a tester is writing a script for LoginPage, he/she might write one for positive and negative testing and another sub-set of testcases would be for error message when the wrong information is entered. In short, the  test cases are divided according to the modules.(The following questions were asked to Padma in one of her interviews very recently)
89. What is your goal?
(This question is asked to check how ambitious you are as far as your career isconcerned, whether you like the job you are doing and so on. Therefore, no matter what,you should stick to your QA job at this point and say that you love this so much and your goal is some thing similar to the one below) Answer: My goal is to be QA Lead (or QA Manager) in near future.
90. What are you expecting from our company?
Answer: My expectation from you company would be I will have more challenges andnew things to learn and whatever the skills I have to contribute, hopefully, I will be ableto contribute if they are in any way helpful to enhance productivity of the company.
91. What did you learn from your previous companies?
Answer: I learned a lot from the previous companies wherever I have worked.Wherever I have worked, I found out the there is always something to learn. Differentcompanies have different ways of working. The environment and technology alwaysdiffer from one company to another company. I have never found one company’senvironment matching with another company. For example, if one company is usingdocuments called requirement documents, then the other company might be using UseCases and some companies might be using Design Document and so on. Therefore, inmy experience, there are always new things to learn in every company and we can alwayscontribute these thing in the next company if they help to be more productive.
92. What do you want to be in next 2 years?
Answer: I want to be QA Lead in another two years.
Why QA Lead? Why not something else?
Answer: QA is the only thing I love doing it. I love this job and want to progress in thissector. I want to know how to manage QA process, how to handle different jobs and soon. Since the next step is the QA Lead, that would preferably be one I will targeting for.
93. Why do you want to work for this company?
Answer: (This is a tricky question. They want to know what really interests you and youhave to be careful when you answer this question. You must admire the line of thatcompany. For example, if you are being interviewed by a pharmaceutical company, thentell them that you are always interested in the medical applications and the better part of your company is that it has exciting products that I am really curious to learn. That’swhy I would feel really great if I am given the opportunity to work in your company)
94. Did you get any compliments from your previous employers? What were thosesituations?
Answer: Yes. I did. There were many occasions where I had compliments. For example, I was testing an application going a little bit off my test cases. After I finishedexecuting my test cases, I always think in a way what a real user would possibally click in various parts of the application. So I was just clicking back and forth and at onespecific scenario, the application simply broke and displayed an error message. Thatscenario was not in the test cases. The manager really appreciated me and thanked for finding this kind of critical defect. Answer: Yes. I did. There were many occasionswhere I had compliments. For example, I was testing an application going a little bit off  my test cases. After I finished executing my test cases, I always think in a way what areal user would possibally click in various parts of the application. So I was just clicking back and forth and at one specific scenario, the application simply broke and displayed anerror message. That scenario was not in the test cases. The manager really appreciatedme and thanked for finding this kind of critical defect.
What are your strengths?
Answer: I am a very detailed oriented person. I have the sense of urgency. I can prioritize my job according to the deadline. I am very much dedicated towards my job. Iam honest. I have the skills and expertise in QA process. These are some of my strengths.
What is your weakness?
Answer: I think my weakness is that whenever I am given some responsibilities andthere is a deadline for it, I work day and night, 7 days a week. This is probably bad for my family life, but I can’t sleep unless I am done with my assignments.(Note: You should think of your weakness where because of your weakness (like the oneabove), still the employer benefits. DON’T SAY anything negative thing, like “I cannotwork long hours, it is hard for me pick up things, it is difficult for me to understandrequirement documents etc)
Please provide information (an example) of your experience testing Linux andUNIX environments (including type of system tested, how tested, actual commandsand steps used for test) Testing applications using Linux and UNIX.

I have tested applications using UNIX. For every backend testing I have donein the past, I have used UNIX platform while performing backend testing. For example,when the data is fed into the system in the front end, that data goes to the database after the batch processing. From the database, the data is now sent to the ETL system (in XMLformat) for data manipulation as per our need (ETL is a software tool of Ab Initiocompany which is used to manipulate data in the data warehouse). In the ETL system, wemanipulate those data according to our need), for example, it could be income statementof the company, balance sheet, monthly reports, and so on. In order to produce incomestatement, we need to run a job in ETL. To run this job, we use UNIX. In the same way,different types of jobs are created for each need (creating balance sheet is another job,creating reports is next job etc) then I had to run different jobs in the ETL system. Oncewe run the job, the running job finally creates an output file which is now validated by ustester. This output file can be in text format or GUI format. Thus, this is the scenariowhere I had to use UNIX. (I have used Linux much, however, since UNIX and Linux arethe same thing, I should have no problem in using Linux)
How do you do risk assessment? (This question was asked to Mona in her interview)
 Answer: (This is what Mona answered): The risks by understanding the infrastructure of the application, hard drive and system capabilities etc. Also added “Risk and MitigationStrategy” column within the test plan. The major risk for the company was system gettingcrashed upon receiving several hits by the users . Company did not set any metrics at thedevelopment phase as to what it can handle. I told him that i noted mitigation stretegy todeal with each known risk within the test plan.
The following are the some of the things that a tester has to know (but may not beasked in the interview  What is a cookie? (You must know how to clean cookies
) A small text file of information that certain Web sites attach to a user’s hard drive while the user is browsingthe Web site. A Cookie can contain information such as user ID, user preferences,archive shopping cart information, etc. Cookies can contain Personally IdentifiableInformation.
Does a tester have to know about cookie?
Yes. A tester has to know HOW TO CLEAN cookies (Does not have to know thedifinition).
Why do we need to clean cookies?
A tester can clean cookies by opening Internet Explorer browser and Firefox browser (whatever you are using).
We need to clean cookies BECAUSE
:When we get a new build (what is a build? See, we must cleancookies. (Remember, once the developers fix the defects, the configuration team makes a build and this process continues until the product (application) is ready to handover to thecustomer). If we don’t clean cookies, then there is a possibility that we may get the sameerror which was already fixed by the developer. Why? Because the error is sitting inyour computer hard drive and the computer feels easy to get the same information fromthe hard drive rather than going to the server and pulling new thing for the same thing.For example, let us say, when you were testing a page, there was a button called “OK”.The client decided that “OK” is NOT the right button here, therefore, that button namewas changed from “OK” to “Continue”. Accordingly, you wrote a defect saying that“OK” button should be changed to “Continue” button. Now, this defect is fixed (thedeveloper changed the “OK” button to “Continue”). Now, you started testing, there is a possibility that you might see “OK” button again. Why? Because you DID NOT cleanyour cookies.Therefore, you must clean your cookies before you starting testing a new build.
Here is how you can clean cookies in Fire Fox:
 1. Open Firefox Brower.2. Click Tools.3. Click Error Console.4. Click Clear. Now the cookies are cleaned in Firefox.
What are different types of protocols?
 -Generally, a Tester does NOT necessarily have to know different types of protocols.This is Network Engineers job. However, if you want to know more for your knowledge,you can visit:
What is Web Architecture?
 -A tester does not necessarily have to know this unless you are a very Senior Tester testing networks and doing some kind of development. However, if you want to knowmore about it, please visit:
Does a Tester need SQL?
 Answer: Yes. For a Tester, SQL is needed. I had the same question in mind becore Icame to the actual implication-what is SQL used for? And now, I know that when we dothe backend testing (see for details), we need to write SQL queries toretrieve the data from the database and compare this data to the one with reports or output. Another scenario is, if something goes wrong in the application, for example, if  there is an error, then we might have to write SQL queries to retrieve the data from thedatabase and check what went wrong. Let’s say, we need to check in the Error Log tablewhat went wrong. To check this, we open the database, go to Error Log table and findout that happened. In the Error Log table, there are many records, so which one is your error then? To find out which one is yours, we need to write SQL queries. Example, youlogged in to the application with User ID=devin99 and password=sn992jj. Now, toretrieve your record, you can write a query some thing like this: select * from Error Logwhere userID=devin99; this query will retrieve your record only so that you can see whathappened.
The process of evaluating a systemto determine whether the products of the givendevelopment phase satisfy the conditionsimposed at the start of that phase.Determination of the correctness of the products of software development with respect to the user needs and requirements.Verification typically involves reviews andmeetings to evaluate documents, plans, code,requirements, and specifications.Validation typically involves actual testing of anactual product and takes place after Verificationsare completed.Verification is the process of comparing awork product with its parent specification for the purpose of detecting errors. Thus design isverified by comparing it with the requirements.And code is verified by comparing it with thedesign. There are four basic methods of verification: inspection which involves thevisualcomparison, test which is a method of comparing expected behavior to actual behavior, demonstration which is like testing but not exactly reproducible, and analysiswhich are application of methods that do not produce repeatable results Verification answersthe question, "Did we build the productcorrectly?

"Validation is the process of comparing a product toits high level requirements. Thus using a validationmethod to determine if a system does what therequirements said. The same methods used for verification can also be used for validation.Validation answers the question, "Did we build thecorrect product?"Are we building the right system?Are we building the system right?Eg: writing a program for addition. 1+1 = cAre we gettingsome outputfor 1+1?1+1 = 6Eg: writing a program for addition. 1+1 = cAre we gettingcorrect outputfor 1+1?1+1=2
Stress testing is stressing beyondmaximum limits- focus is to knowfailure behavior of the system.Load testing is stressingwithinmaximum limits -focus is onPerformance Criteria.Performance - is aboutresponse, time lapses,duration ... etc.Stress testing is subjecting asystem to anunreasonable load bydenying the resources (like, RAM,disc, interrupts, etc.) needed to process that load. The idea is toLoad testing is subjecting asystem to a statisticallyusualload.The two main reasons for using such loads is to support thesoftware reliability testing and inIn performance testing, load isvaried from a minimum (zero)to the maximum levelthesystem can sustain withoutrunning out of resources or to
stress a system to the breaking point in order to find bugs that willmake that break harmful. performance testing.suffer excessive delay(application-specific).The application under test issubjected to extraordinary loadsthat may cause it to crash. In moredetails, it's intended to exhaust thesystem hardware resources(memory, storage).The purpose of performancetesting is to make sure that thesystem is running accordingto the required response time performance specificationsunder a particular load.Describe the difference between validation and verificationVerification is done by frequent evaluation and meetings to appraise the documents, policy, code, requirements, and specifications. This is done with the checklists,walkthroughs, and inspection meetings.Validation is done during actual testing and it takes place after all the verifications are being doneExhaustive Testing:-testing with out any document...tester may learn the prjt when theytest itExecuting the program with all possible combinations of values for program variables.Feasible only for small, simple programs.Any extern or selected internal end-user of the software.DefectDefects are errors found later than the review of the phase where it was introduced. A pre-release defect is a defect discovered before release of the software product. A post-release defect is a defect discovered after release of the software product.Error Errors are any mistake that results in incorrect software or documentation. Errors includeomission or incorrect requirements in a software requirements specification, a developersmisinterpretation of a requirement or an incorrect translation from design to code.FaultAn error's manifestation in software that causes a functional unit of the software systemsto fail in performing its required function. Sometimes called a "bug", a fault is part of thecode that needs to be fixed. Both errors and defects are considered faults.Error: Mistake made in Coding or Mistake made by a Programmer the may result in aProgram .Defect : Variance between Expected and Actual ResultFault/Bug: is a condition that causes the software to fail to perform its required function.
testing, boundary value.
A testing technique using input values at, just below, and justabove, the defined limits of an input domain; and with input values causing outputs to beat, just below, and just above, the defined limits of an output domain
How do u know when to stop testing?
Common steps involved in when to stop testing

Deadlines(Release deadlines and Testing deadline)

Testcase completed with certain percentage passed

Test budget depleted

Coverage of code/functionality/requirements reaches a specified point
Bugrate falls below a certain rate

Beta or alpha testing period ends

30. Valid Equivalence classes a. Number b/w 1 and 99Invalid Equivalence classes a. 0 b. >99 c. An expression tht yields an invalid number. d. Negative numbers. e. Letters and other non numeric characters. Valid Equivalenceclasses a. First character is a capital character b. First character is a lower case letter.Invalid Equivalence classes a. First character is not a letter Test Case
Some Software Testing Interview Questions ........................... 1
Critical:- The defect results in the failure of the complete software system, of asubsystem, or of a software unit (program or module) within the systemHigh:- The defect results in the failure of the complete software system, of a subsystem,or of a software unit (program or module) within the system. There is no way to make thefailed component(s), however, there are acceptable processing alternatives which willyield the desired result.Medium:- The defect does not result in a failure, but causes the system to produceincorrect, incomplete, or inconsistent results, or the defect impairs the systems usabilityLow:- The defect does not cause a failure, does not impair usability, and the desired processing results are easily obtained by working around the defectP1-Further development and/or testing cannot occur until the defect has been repaired.The system cannot be used until the repair has been effectedP2- The defect must be resolved as soon as possible because it is impairingdevelopment/and or testing activities. System use will be severely affected until thedefect is fixedP3:- The defect must be resolved as soon as possible because it is impairingdevelopment/and or testing activities. System use will be severely affected until thedefect is fixedP4- The defect is an irritant which should be repaired but which can be repaired after more serious defect have been fixedP5- The defect repair can be put of indefinitely. It can be resolved in a future major system revision or not resolved at all
RELEASE Criteria
This section details the release criteria for the EMR system. The EMR will bequalified for release as per the following criteria:

All the test cases have been executed and the pass percentage for the test casesis 90% during exhaustive testing and 100% during Regression testing.

All the critical, high and medium defects have been fixed and closed.

All the P1, P2, P3 defects have been fixed and closed.

P4 defects will then be analyzed and categorized whether it should be fixed or not. Those which are marked as to be fixed should be fixed and closed.

The product maturity on all the quality characteristics is 80%. The qualitycharacteristics defined for EMR system are:
Functionality  
Accuracy of the system, Security of the System, FunctionalCompliance of the system

User Interface of the system, Usability of the System,Understandability of the system

Integration with different peripherals

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