Wednesday, 11 July 2012

Oracle app’s technical interview questions

Oracle app’s technical interview questions
    1) What is ERP? Architecture of apps?
             A packaged business software system that lets a company automate and integrate the majority of its business processes; share common data and practices across the enterprise; [and] produce and access information in a real-time environment.
    2) Tell me some thing about SQL-LOADER.
    Sql * loader is a bulk loader utility used for moving data from external files into the oracle database.
    Sql * loader supports various load formats, selective loading, and multi-tables loads.             
        1) conventional
           --The conventional path loader essentially loads the data by using standard ‘insert’ statement.
        2) direct
                 -- the direct path loader (direct = true) by possess of logic involved with that, and loads directly in to the oracle data files.
    My data.csv file
                     1001, “scott tiger”,1000,40
    Load data
    Infile ‘c:\data\mydata.csv’
    Into table emp
    Fields terminated by “,” optionally enclosed by ‘”’
    (empno, empname,sal,deptno)
>sqlldr scott/tiger@vis
    control=loader.ctl  log= gvlog.log  bad=gvbad.bad  discard=gvdis.dsc .
3) how do u dump data from pl/sql block to flat files?
       Using utl_file package, we can dump data from pl/sql block to flat file.
       PRE-REQUIREMENTS for UTL_FILE is specify the accessible directories for the UTL_FILE function in the initialization file (INIT.ORA) Using the UTL_FILE_DIR parameters.
       Ex: UTL_FILE_DIR = <Directory name>
        --remember to update INITSID.ORA,
        --utl_file_dir = ‘c:\oradata’
Fp utl_file.file_type;
Fp := utl_file.fopen(c:\oradata’,tab1.txt’,’w’);
Utl_file.putf(fp,’%s %s \n ‘text field’, 55);
4) What is SET-OF-BOOKS?
    Collection of Chat of Accounts and Currency and Calendars is called SOB
  1. What is the interface?
             Interface Table is a table which is used as medium for transfer of data between two systems.
  1. What is invoice?
          Send you a request for payment
  1. What is INBOUND and OUT BOUND? (Different types of interfaces)
        Inbound Interface:
             For inbound interfaces, where these products are the destination, interface tables as well as supporting validation, processing, and maintenance programs are provided.

      Outbound Interface:
             For outbound interfaces, where these products are the source, database views are provided and the destination application should provide the validation, processing, and maintenance programs
  1. Tell me what r the Base tables in the AR?
    hz_parties      (party_id)     (store info about org, groups and people)
                     HZ_PARTIES stores information about parties such as organizations, people, and groups, including the identifying address information for the party.
      hz_cust_accounts (cust_account_id)
                HZ_CUST_ACCOUNTS stores information about customer relationships. If a party becomes a customer, information about the customer account is stored in this table. You can establish multiplecustomer relationships with a single party, so each party can have multiple customer account records in this table.
      hz_cust_acct_sites_all  (cust_acct_site_id)
                HZ_CUST_ACCT_SITES_ALL stores information about customer sites.One customer account can have multiple sites. The address is maintained in HZ_LOCATIONS.
      hz_cust_site_uses_all   (site_use_id)
                HZ_CUST_SITE_USES_ALL stores information about site uses or business purposes. A single customer site can have multiple site uses, such as bill to or ship to, and each site use is stored as a record in this table.
      hz_party_sites (party_site_id)
              HZ_PARTY_SITES stores information about the relationship between Parties and Locations. The same party can have multiple party sites.Physical addresses are stored in HZ_LOCATIONS.
      hz_locations (location_id)
                HZ_LOCATIONS stores information about physical locations.
      hz_Person_Profiles (person_profile_id)
                   HZ_PERSON_PROFILES stores detail information about people.
      hz_Organization_Profiles (organization_profile_id)
              HZ_ORGANIZATION_PROFILES stores credit rating, financial statistics, socioeconomic and corporate linkage information for business sites. The primary key for this table is ORGANIZATION_PROFILE_ID.

  1. What r the table’s interface tables in the customer interface tables?
  2. Ra_customers_interface_all
               This table stores customer, address, and business purpose information. You do not have to enter values in this table if you do not want to import customers, addresses, or business purposes.
ADDRESS1 through 4
                       Enter the address for your customer in these four columns. You can enter up to four lines of an address.
      If you enter a value in ORIG_SYSTEM_ADDRESS_REF, you must enter a value in ADDRESS1. For multiple rows with the same address reference, insert values in address 1–4.
  Destination:                      HZ_LOCATIONS.ADDRESS1,
           2) Ra_customer_profile_int_all
A customer level profile must exist in A_CUSTOMER_PROFILES_INTERFACE for new customers and each bill–to business purpose.
           3) Ra_contact_phones_int_all
This table stores telephone numbers for customers, addresses and contacts as well as contacts for customers and addresses.
           4) Ra_customer_banks_int_all
This table stores bank information for a customer or for a specific Bill–To address, you must enter a bank account for this customer,
           5) Ra_cust_paymethod_int_all
To import payment methods for customers and bill–to business purposes,
  1. What r the staging tables in the customer interface?
                    Ra_customers_contact points_stg
  1. Tell me some mandatory columns in the customer interface tables?
    a) Ra_customers_interface_all
             1) Orig_system_customer_ref
            2) insert_update_flag
            3) customer_number 
             4) customer_status

                 6) last_updated_date 
                  8) creation_date.       
         b) Ra_customer_profile_int_all
                    1) customer_profile_class_name
         c) Ra_contact_phones_int_all
                    3) telephone_type
         d) Ra_customer_banks_int_all
                    1) bank_a/c_name     
         e) Ra_cust_paymethod_int_all
                     1) payment_method_name
  1. Tell me the Navigation for customer interface?
                 Receivables à Interface à Customers
1. What tables cannot be updated through customer interface?
No updates will be allowed to be made through customer interface for 
Following tables
2. How to send additional customer and address information through customer interafce 
Here is where attribute columns are used.
* Additional Customer data can be populated in 
RA_CUSTOMERS_INTERFACE_ALL.customer_attribute1 to 15
This will go into RA_CUSTOMERS.attribute1 to 15
* Additional address information can be populated in 
RA_CUSTOMERS_INTERFACE_ALL.address_attribute1 to 15
This will go into RA_ADDRESSES_ALL.attribute1 to 15
And so on.
5. What should be the batch size (number of customer records) general guidelines for optimal performance
About 10,000 records per bacth is ideal, it is suggested to keep the batch
size small.
   6. Why does customer interface error out if there is mismatch in address information?
Because the code validates against these mismatches. 
arplscin.sql and arplbcin.sql 
It validates the address being inserted or updated with respect to the tax 
location flexfield structure.  For each row being inserted or updated in 
RA_CUSTOMERS_INTERFACE, and that has not already been marked in error, 
the set_location_ccid function is called to return either an existing ccid 
for the address entered or to create a new entry in AR_LOCATION_VALUES for 
this new address.  The RA_CUSTOMERS_INTERFACE record is then updated with the 
value of the ccid returned.                                
7. How do you send records at customer level profile and address/site level profile?
For every customer record in RA_CUSTOMERS_INTERFACE_ALL, insert two records  in table RA_CUSTOMER_PROFILES_INT_ALL.    (Refer Note: 1070800.6 )
9. Does Customer Interface import salesperson data
No, Refer Enhancement Bug: 147495 
11. Customer Interface process can be used for updating the customer information How does the UPDATE work?
Current functionality of Customer Interface is to update all the data.  You cannot run Customer Interface to update only changed data. (Refer Bug: 879121 for the intended functinality)

12. What are some of the important fields that Customer Interface does not load?
Not all fields in RA_CUSTOMERS are being loaded by the interface. 
(Refer Enhancement Request Bug: 245300)
13. New TCA/Customer Model, how to load customer as PERSON or ORGANIZATION through Customer Interface?
a) Populate ra_customers_interface_all . person_flag = 'Y'
   Run Customer Interface process will load this record as PERSON
b) Populate ra_customers_interface_all . person_flag = 'N' ( or NULL ) 
   Run Customer Interface process will load this record as ORGANIZATION
  1. Tell me what is the procedure to develop an interface?           
    1. First we will get the Requirement document.
    2. We will create control file based on that plot file.
    3. Then the control files which loads the data into staging tables.
    4. Through pl/sql programs we will mapping and validate the data and then dump into the interface tables.
    5. Through the standard programs we will push the data from interface tables to Base tables.
  2. What validations u did in the customer interface?
    1. customer name : the same customer reference can’t have different customer names with in this table
    1. customer number : must be null if your r using automatic customer numbering, must exit if you are not using automatic customer numbering. This value much be unique with in HZ_PARTIES
    2. customer status : must be ‘A’ for active or ‘I’ for inactive
    1. bank account num or bank account currency code :
                         if the bank a/c already exist do not enter a value
                         if the bank a/c does not exist  you must enter a value
    1. bank a/c name : it must exist in AP_BANK_ACCOUNTS or if it does not exist values must exist for BANK_A/C_CURRENCY_CODE
               Note : every interface table has two error msg
        1. Error code.
        2. Error msg.

  1. How can u call a standard interface program from sql or pl/sql code?
           FND_CONCSUB(can submit conc program in host invironment)
  1. Tell me some API?
    Is the Program exits, delete conc program and its executables.
  1. What are profile options?
    Is the Functional and Technical behavior of Oracle Applications Package.
           EX: - I want to assign the user3 responsibility to p4 printer then
                             System Administrator àProfile àSystem
  1. Oracle E-Business suite?
    Oracle apps + analytical components software.
                                (Oracle discover)
                               (Oracle sales analyzer)
                                (Oracle financial analyzer)
                               (Oracle marketing analyzer)
24) What is multi org?
        “Legal entity has more than one operating unit is called as multi org”
          a) Business group --- Human resources information is secured by 
                                           Business group
           b) Legal entity.    --- inter-company and fiscal/tax reporting.
                          Security à responsibility à operating unit.        
  c) Operating unit --- secures AR, OE, AP, PA and PO Information.
  d) Organizations  --- is a specialize unit of work at particular locations

25) What are the User PARAMETERS in the Reports?
FND SRWINIT        sets your profile option values, multiple organizations and allows Oracle Application Object Library user exits to detect that they have been called by an Oracle Reports program. 
FND SRWEXIT       ensures that all the memory allocated for AOL user exits have been freed up properly.
FND FLEXIDVAL  are used to display flex field information like prompt, value etc
FND FLEXSQL      these user exits allow you to use flex fields in your reports
FND FORMAT_CURRENCY is used to print currency in various formats by using formula column
26) PL/SQL stored procedure parameters?
       or      what are the two parameters that are mandatory for pl/sql type concurrent program?
               Procedure/function (ERRBUF   OUT
                                                RETCODE OUT
       ERRBUF :-    Used to write the error message to log or request file.
       RETCODE :- Populate log request file with program submission details info.
27) What is Value Set?
       --The value set is a collection (or) container of values.
       --When ever the value set associated with any report parameters. It provides list of values to the end user to accept one of the values as report parameter value.
       -- If the list of values needed to be dynamic and ever changing and define a table based values set.

27) What r the validation types?
      1) None          -------- validation is minimal.
      2) Independent ------input must exist on previously defined list of values
      3) Dependent    ------input is checked against a subset of values based on a
                                       prior value.
      3) Table             ----- input is checked against values in an application table
      4) Special          ------values set uses a flex field itself.
      5) Pair              ------ two flex fields together specify a range of valid values.
      6) Translatable independent ----- input must exist on previously defined list
                                                           of values; translated values can be used.
      7) Translatable dependent ------- input is checked against a subset of values
                                         based on a prior values; translated value can be used.
28) Form development process?
      a) open template form
      b) Save as <your form>.fmb
     c) Change the form module name as form name.
     d) Delete the default blocks, window, and canvas
      e) Create a window.
      f) Assign the window property class to window
      g) Create a canvas   (subclass info)
      h) Assign canvas property class to the canvas
      I) assign the window to the canvas and canvas to the window
       j) Create a data block       
       k) Modify the form level properties. (sub class item à Text item)
       l) Modify the app_cusom package. In the program unit.
       m) Modify the pre-form trigger (form level)
      n) Modify the module level properties ((console window, First navigation
       p) Save and compile the form.
           Place the .fmx in the server directory.
       Q) Register in the AOL
                                    APPLICATION à FORM
                                    APPLICATION à FUNCTION
                                    APPLICATION à MENU
  1. How do u customize the Reports?
    1. Identify the Short name of the standard report in which module we have to customize
         Ex: - if u want to customize in the AR module path is
                    Appl top\ar\11.5.0\reports\US\ .rdf
    1. Open the .rdf file in Report builder and change the name of the module.
    2. Open the data module and modify the query (what is client requirements) assign the columns to the attributes.
    3. Go to report wizard and select, what r the newly created columns.
    4. Then Compile it. Then u will get a .rep file in the specified module. If it is not in the specified directory then we have to put in the server directory.
    5. Then Register in the AOL   Concurrent àexecutable.
                                                        Concurrent à program.
    1. go to system administrator SecurityàResponsibilityàrequest
                 h)  Add and assign a concurrent program to a request group
30) Registering parametric report?
               Any applications will have two parameters,
                              1) from-period   2) to-period
      a) Go to object navigator and create the parameters.
                User parameters à from_no, to_no (data type char and width 30)
     b) Open the report layout and write the query(we have to reg the table in AOL)
          Select empno,ename,from g_emp where empno between :from_no and to_no
      c) Compile and put the .RDP file in the server directory.
     d) Registering in AOL.
                Concurrent à executable
                Concurrent à program   then go to “PARAMETERS”
    e) Go to Application à validation àset.  then go to “EDIT INTO”
               After entering the VALUE SETS (1) And TOKENS (2)
  1. Go to Administrations
                  Sequrity à responsibility à Request
      h) Add and assign a concurrent program to a request group
31) Tell me some report names and their table names in GL, AP, AR, and PO?
    1) ra_customer_trx_all   
                 trx_number          (invoice no, debit memo no, credit memo no)
    2) ra_customer_lines_all (details of invoice)
    3) ar_payment_schdules_all
                              This table stores all transactions except adjustments and miscellaneous cash receipts. Oracle Receivables updates this table when activity occurs against an invoice, debit memo, chargeback, credit memo, on account credit, or receipt.
    4) ra_cust_trx_types_all       (invoice types)
    5) ra_batches_all
                          This table stores information about each receipt batch that you create in
Oracle Receivables. Each row includes information about a specific batch such as batch source, status, batch type, control count, and control amount
    6) ra_receivable_application_all 
    7) ra_adjustments_all
             This table stores information about your invoice adjustments. Each row includes general information about the adjustment you are making such as activity name, amount, accounting information, reason, and type of adjustment. You need one row for each adjustment you are making to an invoice.

8) ra_cash_receiots_all
                This table stores one record for each receipt that you enter. Oracle Receivables creates records concurrently in the AR_CASH_RECEIPT_HISTORY_ALL, AR_PAYMENT_SCHEDULES_ALL, and AR_RECEIVABLE_APPLICATIONS tables for invoice–related receipts.
  1. ap_invoice_all
                     invoice_amount, base_amount, payment_status_flag(‘y’ –fully paid
                                                                                                            ‘p’ –partially paid)
  1. ap_invoice_payments_all
  1. ap_invoice_distibutions_All
                     amount, base_amount, dist_code_combination_id, line_type_lookup_code
  1. ap_payment_schdules
                     payment_status_flag(“ ‘’’’’”)
  1. ap_payment_dustributions_all
  2. ap_checks_all
                 AP_CHECKS_ALL stores information about payments issued to suppliers or refunds received from suppliers. You need one row for each payment you issue to a supplier or refund received from a supplier. Your Oracle Payables application uses this information to record payments you make to suppliers or refunds you receive from suppliers.
  1. ap_accounting_events_all

  1. ap_bank_accounts_all
                    AP_BANK_ACCOUNTS_ALL contains information about your bank accounts. You need one row for each bank account you define. Each bank account must be affiliated with one bank branch. When you initiate an automatic payment batch, enter a manual check, or create a Quick payment, you can select a bank account that you define in this table.
    9)  ap_bank_accounts_uses_all
               AP_BANK_ACCOUNT_USES_ALL stores information for the internal and external bank accounts you define in Oracle Payables and Oracle
Receivables applications.
  1. po_vendors_all
  2. po_vendors_sites_all
  3. po_headers_all
  1. po_lines_all
  1. po_line_locations_All
  2. po_distributions_all
  1. Gl_code_combinations
                  GL_CODE_COMBINATIONS stores valid account combinations for each Accounting Flexfield structure within your Oracle General Ledger application. Associated with each account are certain codes and flags, including whether the account is enabled, whether detail posting or detail budgeting is allowed, and others.
  1. Gl_je_batches.
               GL_JE_BATCHES stores journal entry batches.
  1. Gl_je_headers
           GL_JE_HEADERS stores journal entries. There is a one–to–many relationship between journal entry batches and journal entries. Each row in this table includes the associated batch ID, the journal entry name and description, and other information about the journal entry. This table corresponds to the Journals window of the Enter Journals form. STATUS is ’U’ for unposted, ’P’ for posted. Other statuses indicate that an error condition was found. A complete list is below.
  1. Gl_je_lines.
             GL_JE_LINES stores the journal entry lines that you enter in the Enter Journals form. There is a one–to–many relationship between journal entries and journal entry lines. Each row in this table stores the associated journal entry header ID, the line number, the associated code combination ID, and the debits or credits associated with the journal line. STATUS is ’U’ for unposted or ’P’ for posted
  1. Gl_set of books
         GL_SETS_OF_BOOKS stores information about the sets of books you define in your Oracle General Ledger application. Each row includes the set of books name, description, functional currency, and other information. This table corresponds to the Set of Books form.
  1. Gl_periods
          GL_PERIODS stores information about the accounting periods you define using the Accounting Calendar form. Each row includes the start date and end date of the period, the period type, the fiscal year, the period number, and other information. There is a one–to–many relationship between a row in the GL_PERIOD_SETS table and rows in this table.
      This report shows all the open-debit memo transactions, based on customer number and dates.
            Columns  :- type, customer_no, trx_no, amt_due, remaining.
             Parameter :- type, customer, from_date, to_date.
    Basically this report generates a flat file of all the payments in order to send in to the bank.
    This report which updates the data into the (AP) account payables system from the plot file, the file which is sent by bank
    This report which shows the out standing checks  
    Which shows each customer original amount, amount pay and due amount based on transaction type (books, pens) 
Transaction types in AR
Credit memo transaction types
Invoice, debit memo, and charge back transaction types
Commitment transaction types
Depending on the naming convention used, errors appear in either alphabetical order or by error code number.
31) How do u identity its name of report?
                 System administrator à concurrent à program à define
                 System administrator à concurrent à program àexecutable 
32) Who information’s?
        1) Created by
        2) Creation date
        3) Last _updated by
        4) last_update_date
        5) last_update_value
            Used to capture the additional business information.

                    DFF                    KFF
    AdditionalUnique Info, Mandatory
    Captured in attribute prefixed columnsSegment prefixed
    Not reported on standard reportsIs reported on standard reports
    To provide expansion space on your form With the help of []. [] Represents descriptive Flex field.
    Used for entering and displaying key information For example Oracle General uses a key Flex field called Accounting Flex field to
    uniquely identifies a general account.

Oracle Applications KEY FLEX FIELDS
Oracle Applications DESCRIPTIVE FLEX FIELDS (Partial)
  1. GL :-  daily rates
  2. AR :- credit history, information
       3) PA :- bank branch, payment terms, site address,  
34) What are the requests groups?
           a) Single request: - this allows you to submit an individual request.
           b) Request set    : - this allows you to submit a pre-defined set of requests.
35) Sys Admin Module?
    a) Define Custom Users, b) Define Login Users, c) Register oracle DB users,
d) Define Concurrent Programs, e) Register Concurrent Executables, f) Setting Profile Option Values, g) Define Request Types.
36) AOL?
   a) Registering tables. b) Registering views c) Registering db sequences
   d) Registering profile options e) Registering lookups and lookup codes
   f) Registering forms g) Registering Form and Non-Form functions i) registering 
       Menus and sub-menus. j) Registering DFF and KFF. k) Libraries 
37) What r the type Models in the system parameters of the report?
      1) Bit map       2) Character mode
38) .What is SRW Package(Sql Report Writer)  
The Report builder Built in package know as SRW Package This package extends reports ,Control report execution, output message at runtime, Initialize layout fields, Perform  DDL statements  used to create or Drop  temporary table,  Call User Exist, to format width of the columns, to page break the column, to set the colors
Ex: SRW.DO_SQL, It’s like DDL command, we can create table, views , etc.,
37) Difference between Bind and Lexical parameters?
-- are used to replace a single value in sql, pl/sql
-- bind variable may be used to replace expressions in select, where, group, order
    by, having, connect by, start with cause of queries.
-- bind reference may not be referenced in FROM clause (or) in place of
    reserved words or clauses.
-- you can use lexical reference to replace the clauses appearing AFTER select,
    from, group by, having, connect by, start with.
-- you can’t make lexical reference in a pl/sql statmetns.
38) Matrix Report: Simple, Group above, Nested  
Simple Matrix Report : 4 groups
  1.Cross Product Group
            2. Row and Column Group
            3. Cell Group
            4. Cell column is the source of a cross product summary that
                           becomes the cell content.
Frames: 1.Repeating frame for rows(down direction)
           2.Repeating frame for columns(Across )
          3.Matrix object the intersection of the two repeating frames

39) what is Flex mode and Confine mode?    
Confine mode
      On:  child objects cannot be moved outside their enclosing parent objects.
      Off:  child objects can be moved outside their enclosing parent objects.
Flex mode:
      On:  parent borders "stretch" when child objects are moved against them.
      Off:  parent borders remain fixed when child objects are moved against

40) What is Place holder Columns?      
   A placeholder is a column is an empty container at design time. The placeholder can hold a value at run time has been calculated and placed in to It by pl/sql code from anther object.
You can set the value of a placeholder column is  in  a Before Report trigger.
   Store a Temporary value for future reference. EX.  Store the current max salary as records are retrieved.
23) What is Formula Column?      
A formula column performs a user-defined computation on another column(s) data, including placeholder columns.
24) What is Summary columns?      
A summary column performs a computation on another column's data.  Using the Report Wizard or Data Wizard, you can create the following summaries:  sum, average, count, minimum, maximum, % total.  You can also create a summary column manually in the Data Model view, and use the Property Palette to create the following additional summaries:  first, last, standard deviation, variance.
50) What is cursor?
      A Cursor is a pointer, which works on active set, I.e. which points to only one row at a time in the context area’s ACTIVE SET. A cursor is a construct of pl/sql, used to process multiple rows using a pl/sql block.
28) Types of cursors?
       1) Implicit: declared for all DML and pl/sql statements.
                           By default it selects one row only.
       2) Explicit:  Declared and named by the programmer.
                           Use explicit cursor to individually process each row returned by a 
                                         Multiple statements, is called ACTIVE SET.
                            Allows the programmer to manually control explicit cursor in the
                                         Pl/sql block
  1. declare: create a named sql area
  2. Open: identify the active set.
  3. Fetch: load the current row in to variables.
  4. Close: release the active set.
  1. %is open: evaluates to true if the cursor is open.
  2. %not found: evaluates to true if the most recent fetch does not return a row
  3. %found: evaluates to true if the most recent fetch returns a row.
  4. %row count: evaluates to the total number of rows returned to far.

Example for cursor:
1) Declare
            Vno emp.empno%type;
            Vname emp.ename %type;
            Cursor emp_cursor is
                   Select empno,ename
                            From emp;
            Open cursor;
            For I in 1..10 loop
              Fetch emp_cursor into vno,vname;
              Dbms_output.putline(to_char(vno) ||’ ‘||vname);
            End if;
         E nd;
2)         Begin
              Open emp_cursor;
                  Fetch when emp_cursor % rowcount >10 or
                                                                      Emp_curor % not found;
                 Bdms_output_put_line(to_char(vno)||’ ‘|| vname);
             End loop;
           Close emp_cursor;
  1. cursor for loop is a short cut to process explicit cursors
  2. it has higher performance
  3. cursor for loop requires only the declaration of the cursor, remaining things like opening, fetching and close are automatically take by the cursor for loop
  1)     Declare
            Cursor emp_cursor is
                   Select empno,ename
                            From emp;
            For emp_record in emp_cursor loop
           End loop       

Can we create a cursor without declaring it?
    Yes – by using cursor for loop using subqueries. 
      FOR emp_record IN ( SELECT empno, ename
                                FROM   emp) LOOP
             -- implicit open and implicit fetch occur
        IF emp_record.empno = 7839 THEN
      END LOOP; -- implicit close occurs
  a) for update clause:
       1) use explicit locking to deny access for the duration of a transaction
       2) lock the rows before update or delete
Ex : select …….
                    For update[ of column ref] [no_wait]

  b) where current of clause?
        1) use cursor to update or delete the current row
                     Where current of < column ref>
29) Attribute data types?
       1) %type 2) %row type.
30) Exception Handilings?
       Is a mechanism provided by pl/sql to detect runtime errors and process them with out halting the program abnormally
    1. pre-defined
    2. user-defined.
  1. cursor_already_open--------attempted to open an already open cursor.
  2. Dup_val_on_index   --------attempted to insert a duplicate values.
  3. Invalid_cursor          -------- illegal cursor operation occurred.
  4. Invalid_number        -------- conversion of character string to number fails.
  5. Login_denied           ---------loging on to oracle with an invalid user name
                                                       and password.
    6) program_error           -------- pl/sql has an internal problem.
    7) storage_error             -------- pl/sql ran out of memory or memory is
    8) to_many_row            ---------single row select returned more than one row.
    9) value_error                -------- arithmetic,conversion,truncation or size
                                                       constraint error occurred.
    10) zero_devided           -------- attempted to divided by zero.
       Declare     : name the exception
       Raise         : explicitly raise the exception by using the raise statements
       Reference: exception handing section.
The Raise_Application_Error_Procedure:
  • You can use this procedure to issue user-defined error messages from stored sub programs.
  • You can report errors to your applications and avoid returning unhandled exceptions.
                     Error number è between -20000 to -20999 
pragma exception_init?
       It tells the compiler to associate an exception with an oracle error. To get an error message of a specific oracle error.
       Ex: pragma exception_init(exception name, oracle error number)
Example for Exceptions?
      1) Check the record is exist or not?
                     E  emp% rowtype
                     e.empno := &empno;
                     select * into e from emp where empno =e.empno;
                     Dbms_output.putline(‘empno’ || e.empno);
                    When no_data_found then
                    Dbms_output.putline(e.empno ||’doest exist’);
     2) User defined exceptions?
                   Define p_dept_desc =’gvreddy’
                   Define p_dept_number =1236
                           E_invalid_dept exception;
                          Update departments
                          Set dept_name=’&p_dept_desc’
                          Where dept_id =’&p_dept_number’;
                        If sql% not found then
                            Raise e_invalid_departments;
                        End if;
                           When e_invalid_departments then
                           Dbms_output.putline(‘no such dept’);
52) what is REF Cursor?
        To execute a multi-row query, oracle opens an unnamed work area that stores processing information, to access the information, an explicit, which names the work area or, a cursor variable, which points to the work area.
where as a cursor always refers to the same query work area,  a cursor variable can refer to a different work areas, cursor variable area like ‘c’ or ‘pascal’ pointers, which hold the memory location(address) of some object instead of the object itself.
So, declaring a cursor variable creates a pointers, not an object.
32) Can u define exceptions twice in same block?
33) Can you have two functions with the same name in a pl/sql block?
34) Can you have two stored functions with in the same name?
35) Can function be overload?
  1. What is the maximum number of statements that can be specified in a trigger statement?
32) Stored procedure?
       Stored procedure is a sequence of statements that perform specific function.
53) What is procedure?
    ----    is a named pl/sql block to perform a specific task.
    ----    A procedure may have DML statements.
  ----    It may or may not return a value.
    ----    Procedure can return more than one value.
Example for procedure

  1. To accept the year as a parameter and list emp belong to the year?
                  Create or replace
                          Procedure empy(y number) is
                      Cursor emp_cursor is
                              Select * from emp where to_char(hiredate,’yyyy’)=’y’;
                     Emp_record  emp%rowtype;
                      For emp_record in emp_cursor loop
                         Print (emp_record.empno);
                        Print (emp_record.ename);
                        Print (emp_record.sal);
                     End loop;
Output :
              var empx number;
                    :empx := ‘1234’;
       Exec empy(:empx);
        Print empy;
54) What is function?
   ---- is a named pl/sql block to perform a specific task, is mainly used for calculation purpose.
   ---- A function is called as part of an exception.
   ---- Every function should return a value
Example for function
       Create or replace
                          Function get_sal(p_id in emp.emp_no% type)
                                          Return number
                     v_sal emp.sal%type :=0;
                           Select salary into v_salary
                                                                From emp
                                                                        Where emp_no = p_id;
                            Return v_salary
                            End get_sal;                    
Output :
              var g_sal number;
               Exec :g_sal := get_sal(99);
               Print g_salary;
9.Can functions be overloaded ?
10.Can 2 functions have same name & input parameters but differ only by return datatype
55) What is the package? 
    ---- Group logically related pl/sql types, items and subprograms.
      1. package specification
      2. package body
Advantages of a package:
    • Modularity
    • Easier Application Design
    • Information Hiding
    • Overloading

You cannot overload:
      •Two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode. (datatype and their total number is same).
      •Two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the different datatypes are in the same family (number and decimal belong to the same family)
      •Two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family (VARCHAR and STRING are subtypes of VARCHAR2)
•Two functions that differ only in return type, even if the types are in different families.
56) What is FORWARD DECLARATION in Packages?
    PL/SQL allows for a special subprogram declaration called a forward declaration. It consists of the subprogram specification in the package body terminated by a semicolon. You can use forward declarations to do the following:
    • Define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order.
    • Define mutually recursive subprograms.(both calling each other).
    • Group subprograms in a package 
    Example of forward Declaration: 
      PROCEDURE calc_rating(. . .);    -- forward declaration 
      PROCEDURE award_bonus(. . .)
      IS     -- subprograms defined
      BEGIN                     -- in alphabetical order
        calc_rating(. . .);      
      . . .
      PROCEDURE calc_rating(. . .)
      . . .
    END forward_pack;
56) What are triggers?
---- triggers are similar to procedures, in that they are the named pl/sql blocks with declarative, executable and exception-handling sections, how ever a procedure is executed explicitly from another block via a procedure call, which can also pass arguments.
---- A trigger is executed implicitly when ever a particular event task places. And is nothing but a event.
---- The triggering event is a DML (insert, update, delete) operations on a data base table
----- fires whenever a data event(such as DML) or system event(such as login or shutdown) occurs on a schema or database
Trigger timing :  1) before
                            2) after
                            3) instead of ( this is used for views)
Triggering events : 1) insert
                                3) delete
Trigger type :  1) statement level
                          2) row level.
Firing sequence of database triggers
    1. before statement trigger
    2. before row trigger
    3. after row trigger
    4. after statement trigger
1)            Create or replace trigger secure_emp
                     Insert  on emp
           If (to_char(sysdate,’dy’) in(‘sat’,’sun’)) or
                 Not between ’08:00’ and ’18:00’)
Then raise_application_error(-20500,’u can insert in the office timings’)
End if;
Ex :-  2)  write a program to all transitions with name smith?
                Create or replace
                Trigger trigger_name
                Before insert or update or delete
                On emp
           For each row
                          When (old.ename =’smith’ or
                                      New.ename =’smith’)
57) Difference between triggers and procedures?

      Defined with create triggerDefined with create procedure
      The data dictionary contains source code in the user_triggers.Data dictionary contains source code in user_source
      Implicitly invokedExplicitly invoked
      Commit, save point and rollback are not allowed(TCL)Those are allowed

58) LOCKS?
           -- Is to reduce concurrency
      1) share lock
                ---it allows the other users for only reading not to insert or update or delete.
      2) exclusive lock
                 --- only one user can have the privileges of insert or update and delete of particular object
                --- others can only read.
     3) update lock
               ----multiple user can read, update delete
Lock levels :
                       1) table level  2) table space 3) data base level.
58) What is template?
   a) The TEMPLATE form is the required starting point for all development of new
   b) The TEMPLATE form includes platform–independent attachments of several
      APPSCORE :- It contains package and procedures that are required of all forms to support  the MENUS ,TOOLBARS.
      APPSDAYPK :- It contains packages that control the oracle applications CALENDER FEATURES.
     CUSTOM :- it allows extension of oracle applications forms with out modification of oracle application code, you can use the custom library for customization such as zoom    ( such as moving to another form and querying up specific records)
59)     What are ad-hoc reports?
Ans.:  Ad-hoc Report is made to meet one-time reporting needs. Concerned with or formed for a  
           particular purpose. For example, ad hoc tax codes or an ad hoc database query
60) What is responsibility?
       Is collection of menus, request security groups and data groups
Menus: collection of forms is nothing but menus
  Request security groups: collection of programs.
  Data groups: is a group of modules to be made accessible by the user through
           System adminàsecurityàdefine
61) What are different execution methods of executabls?
FlexRpt             The execution file is wrnitten using the FlexReport API.
FlexSql             The execution file is written using the FlexSql API.
Host             The execution file is a host script.
Oracle Reports            The execution file is an Oracle Reports file.
PL/SQL Stored Procedure       The execution file is a stored procedure.
SQL*Loader            The execution file is a SQL script.
SQL*Plus            The execution file is a SQL*Plus script.
SQL*Report            The execution file is a SQL*Report script.
Spawned            The execution file is a C or Pro*C program.
          Immediate                               The execution file is a program written to run as a subroutine of the concurrent manager. We recommend against defining new immediate concurrent programs, and suggest you use either a PL/SQL Stored Procedure or a Spawned C Program instead. 
Composite Datatypes :
  • Nested TABLE

What is the sequence of functions – group by,having,orderby in a select statements ?
    Group by…
Difference between User and Super User?
    User : login user or front end user
    Super user : it has full access of particular module

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